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Stokes Croft – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
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Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871

Stoke’s Croft, North Street to Cheltenham Road

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5063962403/

One of the shops which was demolished was where Arthur Holborn ran his photography business for about 40 years. He specialised in portraits which bore his elegantly engraved advertisement on the back. Four doors away art of a different type was produced by Thomas Colley, who was a sculptor and his specialities were ‘monuments, headstones, crosses and memorials of all descriptions’. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174492981/

1. H. Lester, register oflice for servants
2. Richard Pearce, teacher of music
3. William Hagen, painter
4. Oliver Sheppy, family grocer
5. William Corbett
6. Miss Jennings, milliner
7. Walton King, wine & spirit merchant
8. J. Bennett, plumber
9. John Rice, teacher of dancing
10. Thomas Colley, sculptor
11. Benjamin Hamilton, music warehouse
12. Miss Moulding, dress maker
13. Mrs W. Cook, teacher of music, etc
14. William James
15. J. Dilke, house painter
16. George Poole, dentist
17. J. F. Davis, undertaker, etc
18. Richard F. Jones
19. Capt. John Way
20. Mrs Broad
21. Joseph Richards, carpenter
22. Richard Slade, painter, etc
23. James Webber

Brooks Dry Cleaners Ltd St Werburghs Bristol www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2046815682/

24. Henry Bishop, Bevan, vict, Antelope (pub) 1837 – 44 John Thomas / 1847 – 59 William Salter / 1860 – 63 Ann Salter / 1865 – 66 James Ricketts / 1867 – 69 Andrew Lewis 1871 – 76 Henry Bishop / 1877 to 1878 T. Gall / 1879 Charles Tovey & Co. / 1882 – 83 Thomas Sedgebeer / 1885 Eliza Perry 1886 J. Machan / 1887 to 1888 George Thomas Mills / 1889 Charles George / 1891 William Northam / 1892 – 96 Henry Burrow 1899 Thomas White / 1901 Nellie Jenkins.

In the 1880s the consecutive numbering system of Stokes Croft changed to odds on one side, evens on the other. In 1873 Charles Board cabinet maker and billiard table manufacturer was listed at no 20. He was still in the same premises as a billiard table manufacturer in 1906, but it was now no 37. Next door (building in scaffolding) had three different occupiers between 1873 and 1906 – Joseph Richards, carpenter had gone by 1888, replaced by Staffordshire Supply Store and by the 1900s Wall and Co, furniture dealers.

25. G. Evans, flour dealer
26. Waters & Co. wine & spirit merchants
27. William Pepper, hosier, etc
27. Thomas Crew, porter stores
28. James Brown, baker
29. William Thomas
30-31. William Merson, saddler
Charles Latham, attorney
31. John Milton, venetian blind maker
33. William Robins, painter, etc
34. www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/10383609634/
36. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/9280249203/
39. James Morse & Co. grocers

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10380679115/

40. George Stallard Nipper, builder
41. William Chapman, painter, etc
42. Selina Chapman, earthenware dealer
43. Charles Phillips, greengrocer
44. Charles Williams, boot maker
44. Theodore May, dyer
45. Nathan Palmer, soap and candle dealer

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381070043/

46. Thomas Prewett, baker
47. George Gillingham, painter, etc
48. T. W. Lansdown, greengrocer
49. Edward Brown, greengrocer
50. George Pymm
51. John Sprod, grocer
52. Ann Warley, greengrocer
53. Daniel Taylor, smith and bell hanger
54. William Holbrook, fishmonger and poulterer
55. J. C. Hewitt, goldsmith & jeweller

56. Mary Tossell, vict, Little Swan (pub) 1848 – 66 John Tossell / 1866 – 72 Mary Tossell / 1874 – 89 John Jenkins Eastman / 1890 Clara Eastman / 1891 Clara M. Symes 1892 to 1893 Martha Street / 1894 – 1901 Donald Barry / 1904 – 09 George Rexworthy / 1914 Bridget Spencer / 1917 – 25 Albert Alder 1928 – 31 Alfred Scott / 1935 – 37 Jeremiah McCarthy. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/

57. Charles Taylor, hair dresser
58. William Rokins, greengrocer

58-76 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383296583/

59. James Hewitt, vict, Swan Hotel Near the corner with Nine Tree Hill the Swan Hotel is still trading, but is now known as the Croft. bristolslostpubs.eu/page195.html

60. Charles Davis, confectioner

Vincent Skinner, horticultural builder

Tucketts Building

On the corner of Ashley Road stands 108, Tucketts Buildings an ebullient example of late Victorian commercial premises. It is said that human bones were dug up in the foundation trenches, probably from the victims of the gallows which once stood here.

The Tuckett’s Buildings 108 Stokes Croft sweep around the Ashley Road corner.

Named after Coldstream Tuckett who developed the site and opened his grocery and provisions shop there in the 1890s. During the excavations two skeletons were found. It was suggested that they were 17th/18th century suicides who, according to the custom of the time, had been buried at the crossroads.

F. Coldstream Tuckett had his grocer’s shop in part of this building until about 1920. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Bristol & District Grocers’ & Provision Dealers’ Association. When the Grocers’ Federation of the United Kingdom held their Summer Conference in Bristol in July 1900 he was Press Steward and half of the two-man Entertainment Committee.

In 1911 two boys named Cooper and Hardwick were charged at Bristol Police Court with breaking into his premises through Skinners Yard at the back. They stole a bottle of port and some pork pies. The court sentenced them to a birching.

Although a route through Stokes Croft is likely to have existed for centuries earlier, the first reference is in a deed of 1579. The land is recorded as a field containing one little lodge, a garden and pasture, with a footpath running through the grounds. In 1618, the city received 6d for mending holes in the stile.

61. T. J. & J. F. Perry, carriage builders
62. Charles S. Davey, corn and flour dealer
63. Pugh and Son, grocers
64. James Kebby, butcher
65. M. A. Alexander
66. John Smith, porter stores
67. Isaac Thomas, bookseller
68. Thomas Mann, tailor
69. J. Sampson, boot maker
70. James Melhuish, pork butcher

71. E. J. Hatherley, builder, Stokes croft house www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174888582/

72. Edwin Peacock, chemist
Baptist College – Rev. Dr. Gotch
73. Joseph A. Cortisi, confectioner
73. George Park, toy warehouse

76-74 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382901475/

74. John Parry, boot maker
75. J. Greenham, tobacconist
76. Misses Wallington, fancy repository

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381417373/

77. Miss E. Wallington, milliner
78. J. Cluett, china warehouse

(North Parade)

6. A. Willis, butcher
5. Eleanor Ford, fancy draper
4. Robert G. Whiting, boot maker
3. George A. Peacock, fishmonger, etc
2. S. Palmer, spirit dealer
1. John Howe, boot maker
1. W. Greening, druggist

(City Road Intersect)

Foll and Abbott, Stokes Croft Brewery www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383594583/

77. Charles and Wakefield, tailors, etc
78. George Nelson Naish, boot maker

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381553633/

79. W. H. Hawkins, plasterer & painter
80. S. Bruton, music warehouse
81. Henry O. Richards, boot maker

82. Robert Tyler, wine & spirit merchant www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10380482016/

83. J. W. Sane, ladies’ outfitter
83. Frederick Calder, confectioner
84. Anthony Power, berlin and fancy depository

85. W. J. Exon, baker www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174410583/

86. Charles Tovey & Co, wine merchants
87. A. M. Withers, ironmonger
88. Francis Virtue, bookseller
89. John Parnall, ladies’ outfitter
90. Unitarian Almshouses & School

Stokes Croft School www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2049372251/

91. Isaac Simmonds, plumber, etc
92. John H. Diggs, tobacconist
93. Sarah Mountjoy, fancy depository
94. George King, grocer
95. Edward Hunt, ironmonger, etc

Walter James Hooper & Co. fish and poultry market. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381994874/

97-99. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381685406/

101. The Post office www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382010883/

Stokes Croft Court, 28, Stokes Croft

Stoke’s Croft Place, Stoke’s Croft

Mrs Spurse
Catherine Parsons
Alfred Jones
John Weeks, 2, Vine cottages
W. C. R. Bailey, 1, Vine cottages
Mrs Duance
John Pottow, farrier

Notes

Ann Barnes – Wife of Mr Barnes wheelwright living near Stokes Croft turnpike Died January 11th 1816 in 22nd year of her age of consumption.

William Chaffe 1753 Died ‘of lunacy’ Inquest held at Full Moon, Stokes Croft

Joseph Church of Newfoundland Gardens, fell down a flight of steps in Stokes Croft in December 1847 and fractured his leg. Admitted to Bristol Infirmary.

Mr Fry Schoolmaster of Stokes Croft married Mrs Dickson of Broad Street at St James’ Church on Friday Nov 7th 1766.

Joseph Glascodine 1793 carpenter and millwright, Stokes Croft.

Edward William Godwin 1833-1886 Born at 12 Old Market Street, alter living at 21 Portland Square. One of his best-known designs is the Carriage and Harness Factory in Stokes Croft.

George Longman of Stokes Croft., married Mrs Mary Clampit of Catherine Place February 3rd 1829.

William Morgan – Recommended for receipt of parish relief (St James) in 1814. He was a tailor with a wife and 4 children who had worked for John Rice of 23 Stokes Croft for some years. Rice could no longer employ him due to ‘work being dead’.

Henry Parker, cab driver, he was charged at Bristol Police Court in January 1899 with ‘furious driving’ in North Street and Stokes Croft. As he had been in trouble before he was fined 10s and costs.

Samuel Parry (d. 1839) Aged 88, of Stokes Croft was buried at St Paul, Portland Square on January 20th 1839.

James Sadler 1753-1828 Originally from Oxford where his family had a confectionery business. Interested in engineering and chemistry. Made several balloon flights before his ascent from Stokes Croft in Bristol on September 24th 1810., accompanied by William Clayfield Watched by a large crowd the balloon rose up and was carried over Leigh Down, where they dropped a cat in a basket attached to a parachute. (The cat was rescued by a watching limeburner. The balloon eventually landed in the Bristol Channel near Lynton.

John Stoke, Mayor 1364, 1366 and 1379. His will was proved in 1382. Stokes Croft, originally known as Berewyke’s Croft was named after him.

Isaac Van Amburgh, Lion tamer, who gave an exhibition at Bristol Zoo in July 1839 and met with an ‘accidental injury whilst thrusting his hand into a lion’s mouth’. A newspaper report stated that he was completely recovered and would give some more performances before continuing with his tour. This was no means his only visit to Bristol. In August 1842 there were newspaper reports of how he ‘made an entrance into the city driving 8 beautiful cream coloured horses in hand’. The procession of vans was accompanied by an elephant. And made its way to Backfields, Stokes Croft where a spacious pavilion was erected.

Archy Walters, Elder of two young brothers who walked from Stokes Croft to Horfield and lost their way in the fields as night fell. As it grew colder and colder they took shelter under a hedge and Archy wrapped his brother in his own clothes to keep him warm. They were found next morning, but too late to save Archy, although his brother survived thanks to his selfless act.. References: Memorial stained glass window in Horfield Parish church,

Wimble (d. Nov 1766) Died at his house in Stokes Croft.

Schools

Misses Armstrong’s Boarding School for Young Ladies, Wellington Place, Stokes Croft Listed 1847.

Mrs Baker’s School for Ladies, 4 Wellington Place, Stokes Croft. Mrs Baker gave the establishment her ‘strict personal attention’ according to newspaper notice of 1830 which stated that teaching was ‘conducted on a plan approved by men of learning which renders abstruse studies comprehensible and entertaining’.

Churches

Stokes Croft Chapel, Stokes Croft (Christian Brethren) This was originally a skating rink and was purchased on 8th July 1879 by the ‘friends worshipping in Bethesda Chapel and Salem Chapel St Augustine’. It was fitted up as a place of worship in lieu of Salem, which was then vacated. It accommodated 500 people and was ‘neatly fitted up at the expense of £500-600’.

Businesses

Wyndham Lewis, 102 Stokes Croft Baker and Confectioner.

Massingham – Red House Boot Stores, 77 Stokes Croft. trading in 1901.

W E Pritchard, 95 Stokes Croft. Fishmonger & Poulterer. Trading in May 1901.

E K Vaughan, 56 Stokes Croft, Jeweller and Watchmaker Trading May 1901.

New Zealand quotations (3)
molds make maker china
Image by PhillipC
Ronald Allison Kells Mason was born in Penrose, Auckland, on 10 January 1905, the son of Francis William Mason and his wife, Jessie Forbes Kells. His father, a perfume maker, died of an accidental overdose of opium in 1913 and he and his elder brother were sent to live with an aunt, Isabella Kells, in the south Waikato settlement of Lichfield. She taught the boys until 1915, when Mason returned for one year’s primary schooling at Panmure before attending Auckland Grammar School from 1917 to 1922 (in 1919 and 1921 for only one term each year, apparently for economic reasons). He distinguished himself in English and Latin, and began writing verse. His translation of Horace’s ‘O fons Bandusiae’ (‘O fair Bandusian fountain’) was evidently a class exercise done in the fifth form. In that same year he first encountered A. R. D. Fairburn, with whom he formed a close association over the next decade.

Soon after leaving school Mason took a position as a tutor in Latin, economics and civics at the University Coaching College, a private tutoring school where he was to be employed for six years. In 1923 he prepared a handwritten collection of poems which he named ‘In the manner of men’. This was followed in 1924 by his first published volume, The beggar , which contained versions of many of the poems written during his school years. They are precocious, often morbid poems that reflect the highly rhetorical styles of the Victorian poets, but some are of lasting value. The beggar found almost no market in New Zealand. It did, however, reach the English anthologist and editor Harold Monro, who reprinted two of its poems in the 1924 issue of the Chapbook , and two more in the 1929 anthology Twentieth century poetry .

In 1925 Mason published a pamphlet, Penny broadsheet , containing five further poems. In 1926 he enrolled at Auckland University College, majoring in Latin and French. He studied full time that year and from 1928 to 1930, eventually graduating BA in 1939. Mason evidently continued to support himself by tutoring until near the end of his full-time studies. He continued to write poems, some of which were published in the local newspapers, the Sun and the Auckland Star , and wrote several short stories, published in Kiwi , the Phoenix and Tomorrow ; He also drafted two novels, which remained unpublished.

After completing his full-time studies he worked for a season in Lichfield as a harvester before returning to Auckland to a variety of labouring jobs, and to close association with friends active at the university. In the first months of 1931 he travelled to Tonga and Samoa to study the conditions on those islands, and particularly the circumstances of the Mau uprising in Samoa. This trip he described as beginning his disillusionment with New Zealand nationalism, which was to culminate in 1947 with the publication of the pamphlet Frontier forsaken: an outline history of the Cook Islands .

Between 1931 and 1933 Mason contributed regularly to Kiwi and to the Phoenix , a student publication printed by Bob Lowry at Auckland University College. The first two issues in 1932, edited by James Bertram, emphasised cultural and aesthetic issues. Mason assumed the editorship in 1933; under him the third and fourth issues had a more directly political emphasis, and the magazine’s controversial nature made it the focus for attack from the conservative press.

By this time Mason’s interests had clearly moved from the poetic to the political. Although he was to publish three books of verse in the next 10 years, all but about 12 of the poems eventually collected under his name had been written by 1933. No new thing (1934) contained 25 poems from 1924 to 1929. The book was printed by Lowry at the Unicorn Press, but problems with binding meant that only a few copies were issued for sale. Mason retained his business association with Unicorn for a short time, but the Caxton Press published his poems from then on. End of day (1936) printed five new poems, and a further five were included in Caxton’s Recent poems (1941). This dark will lighten: selected poems, 1923–41 was Mason’s first substantial selection of his work and the first to make it widely available. In it he stripped down the typography and punctuation, making increasing use of the hanging indent that he had first used a decade before, and paring down the rhetorical diction and flourishes of some of the earlier poems.

Mason’s writing after the mid 1930s was mainly political journalism and didactic plays for the stage, radio and dance theatre. At least 10 plays were written; two were published separately, Squire speaks in 1938 and China: script…for a dance-drama by Margaret Barr in 1943. He wrote political and social commentaries extensively, using both his own name and ‘PWD’. He published in Tomorrow , the Workers’ Weekly and the People’s Voice , the communist weekly newspaper. When this was banned by the government in 1941, Mason edited, printed and published its successor, In Print. He was briefly the publisher of the revived People’s Voice in 1943–44 and then publisher of Challenge , the weekly journal of the Auckland District Labourers’ Union. He is also recorded in 1950 as the publisher of a union paper, Congress News , the journal of the New Zealand Trade Union Congress. He made another trip to the Pacific islands prior to the publication of Frontier forsaken in 1947. In the years immediately after the war he was a strong advocate of the establishment of a national theatre.

Ill health forced Mason into semi-retirement in 1956, though for several years he continued to work a little as a landscape gardener. In that year he welcomed a troupe of the Classical Theatre of China to Auckland, and in 1957 he was a member of a New Zealand delegation invited to the People’s Republic of China.

In 1962 Pegasus published his Collected poems. The book drew together all the published and unpublished poems he wished to retain, while the last of the earlier poems were revised for republication. In the same year he held the Robert Burns Fellowship at the University of Otago. Three poems were printed in the students’ association’s Review and ‘Strait is the gate’, a play with strong Otago themes, was performed and later recorded for radio. Also that year, on 27 August, he married his long-time companion Dorothea Mary Beyda (known by her maiden name of Dorothea Mould). They remained in Dunedin until 1965, when they returned to Auckland, living in Takapuna where Mason taught part time. In 1969–70 the New Zealand Literary Fund Advisory Committee discussed a recommendation that a pension be paid to him in recognition of his achievements, but he died on 13 July 1971 before this could be done. He was survived by his wife.

In his own lifetime Mason was respected for his commitment to the trade union movement, and for his dedication to the principles of Marxism as a political philosophy. Although it is as a poet that he is deservedly best remembered, the ethical and existential questions that the poems confront seem to have been answered for Mason by his espousal of Marxist principles, and the transferral of energy from poetry to politics in the mid 1930s was a part of this process. Mason’s poetry was humanistic and sceptical, concerning itself with the quest for purpose in a universe which appeared to be essentially mechanistic or godless. The earlier poems are frequently concerned with a sense of despairing mortality, and a feeling that the poet is the plaything of history. The later poetry, often focusing on the figure of a secular suffering Jesus, who is human rather than divine, poses dramatised questions about the consequences of ethical choice and the problems faced by the good man in a morally indifferent society.

Stylistically and thematically much of Mason’s poetry marks him as an inheritor of the Victorian tradition, although equally he was influenced by the Georgian practices of his time. His work stands somewhat apart from the more overtly nationalistic writings of his contemporaries, though he shared with them a sense of romantic alienation and a view of poetry as primarily a morally instructive art. His poems from The beggar on also mark the beginnings of serious modern poetry in New Zealand, and his best poems remain numbered among the finest in New Zealand literature.

Benn & Adelaide Pitman Bedstead
molds make maker china
Image by elycefeliz
www.discoveringthestory.com/goldenage/bed/background.asp

This mahogany bedstead was designed by Benn Pitman on the occasion of his marriage to his second wife, Adelaide Nourse. Adelaide carved the decorative motifs on the bed, which was made for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway. The interior of the home was decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs based on native plant life. Everything in the home was carved by hand, from the baseboards to ceiling moldings and all its furniture.

The bedstead is Modern Gothic in style and is composed of a headboard, footboard, and two side rails. The headboard is divided into three sections: two lancet panels with egg molding and a central trilobate arch. The central panel is carved with a flock of swallows flying in the evening sky. The birds are depicted in various stages of relief, some nearly four and a half inches from the headboard. Others are shown in low relief to suggest a sense of depth. Just below and to the right of the birds is a crescent moon in low relief. Hydrangea blossoms in high relief are carved into the lower section of this panel. In the lower left is a carved inscription that reads, "Good night, good rest." Extending above this is an arched hood that is carved with four panels of overlapping daises. The four finials of the headboard are carved in the shape of wild parsnip leaves.

In the two lancet panels on either side are painted images of human heads on gold discs representing night and morning. These panels were painted by Elizabeth Nourse (1859-1938), Adelaide’s twin sister, who was an internationally acclaimed painter. To the left is Morning, surrounded by painted white azaleas. To the right is Night, surrounded by balloon vines. The corners of these side panels are carved with stylized leaves and berries.

This bed, which occupied the Pitman’s bedroom, was meant to symbolize and celebrate sleep. Soon after its completion, it received much acclaim and was exhibited in 1883 by the Pitmans at the Fifteenth Annual Exhibition of the Work of the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati and also at the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition. In 1909 the bedstead and the rest of the bedroom were described in the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette: "It is such a room in which a sufferer of insomnia would totter drowsily upon entering. The entire combination is made to symbolize "night" and so faithfully is repose portrayed that sleep nearly overcomes one within the door. The bed is a masterstroke of human genius…and the entire combination seems covered with such a consistent nocturnal veil as to make the words "good night" at the bottom quite unnecessary."

72.249.182.183/collection/search.do?id=15453&db=objec…

Artist/Maker Benn Pitman (American, b.1822, d.1910)
Elizabeth Nourse (American, b.1859, d.1938)
Adelaide Nourse Pitman (American, b.1859, d.1893)
Date 1882-1883
Medium American black walnut and painted panels
Credit Line Gift of Mary Jane Hamilton in memory of her mother Mary Luella Hamilton, made possible through Rita S. Hudepohl, Guardian

Benn Pitman, an expatriated Englishman, arrived in Cincinnati from Philadelphia in 1853. Although trained to be an architect, he traveled to America to promote the phonetic shorthand system developed by his brother Sir Isaac Pitman. Sometime between his arrival and 1872, he developed an extraordinary interest and skill in woodcarving. Pitman embraced the Aesthetic Movement and turned to nature for inspiration.

In 1872, carved furniture, doors and baseboards made by the Pitman family, including his wife, Jane, and daughter Agnes, were exhibited at the Third Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

He taught woodcarving at the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati (later the Art Academy) from 1873 to 1892. He also invented an electrochemical process for relief engraving (1855), was court recorder for the Lincoln assassination trial (1865) and wrote a biography of his brother (1902).

Adelaide Nourse Pitman, the twin sister of Elizabeth Nourse and youngest of ten children, was born on October 26, 1859, in the Cincinnati suburb of Mt. Healthy. Her parents had moved to Cincinnati from Massachusetts in the early 1830s. Her father, a banker, suffered serious financial losses after the Civil War. As a result of this loss, the girls were required to support themselves. The twins enrolled in the University of Cincinnati School of Design, which charged only minimal tuition. While at the University, Adelaide joined Marie Egger’s china painting class and began several years’ study of wood carving under Benn Pitman. She worked on the carving of the Cincinnati Music Hall organ screen, carved a number of architectural elements for the interior of the Ursuline chapel in St. Martin, and received a silver medal at the 1880 Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

On August 10, 1882, Adelaide married Pitman in Sandusky, Ohio. She was twenty-two and he was sixty. After their marriage, she continued to work, under his supervision, in copper, silver, and brass, as well as on decorative wood carvings for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway.

In 1883 she gave birth to her first child, who died in infancy. The couple’s second child, born July 5, 1884, was named Emerson. The third and final child born to the couple was their daughter, Melrose, born on November 5, 1889.

Tragically, Adelaide Pitman died on September 12, 1893 of tuberculosis. She was only thirty-three years old.

Elizabeth Nourse was a painter, sculptor, wood-carver, etcher, illustrator and decorative artist who achieved her greatest success after 1887 as an expatriate in Paris. Born a twin in Mount Healthy, she enrolled in 1874 at the Cincinnati University School of Design, graduating in 1881. She had planned to continue her studies in New York, but with the death of her father and the marriage of her sister, Adelaide, to furniture-maker Benn Pitman her plans changed.

Nourse studied for a few months at the National Academy of Design and from 1883-86 worked as a portrait painter spending part of each summer sketching and painting in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. It was the local people who would become her subjects. In 1887 she exhibited four watercolors at the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition and soon after she and her older sister, Louise, left for what was to be a visit to France. They spent the rest of their lives abroad.

www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org/

The Part That Precision Press Molding Plays in Creating Car Parts

The Part That Precision Press Molding Plays in Creating Car Parts

automotive interior mold manufacturers
by DVS1mn

It is highly likely that many of you will have never really taken the time to consider just where the parts that make up a car come from. You will take a trip down to an auto body shop and pick out your needed parts without ever thinking about how those parts came into being.

Well, a good portion of car parts are created using a specially designed press mold which has been built and supplied to the manufacturer from companies.

These press molds have to undergo a number of different tests to ensure that they are exact in size and shape and are what the automotive manufacturer is looking for.

Once these press molds have been skillfully designed, developed, and constructed, they are sold to the automotive manufacturer who then uses these molds to mass produce the car parts that the molds represent.

What Parts are generally made By Press Molds?

Press molds can be developed and constructed for a wide variety of different car parts. Everything from the exterior paneling, interior paneling, and seat covers, and even the heads of the gear sticks are constructed using a high quality press mold. In fact there is not too much that cannot be created as even parts of the chassis are often created by press molds.

A number of different materials can be used in a press mold and they are usually created using a combination of a hydraulic press, some heat, and a raw material that could be anything from metal alloy, rubber, or plastic.

The process of creating the parts includes placing the materials in the press mold, applying heat and pressure from the hydraulic press before the finished product is ready to be finalized through being painted and flashing.

The Benefit of Using Compression Molding

The main benefit of having press molds built and used for the manufacture of car parts is that it is an extremely cost effective process. Molds do not cost that much, especially from well renowned brands whilst labor costs are also not as much as what would be found with other methods.

Additionally, there are only small amounts of wasted materials as any they can be simply be recycled and used again in a future mold. The savings made by here can be better spent by car manufacturers on other areas of the product that could essentially make them better.
The final benefit that is by using a press mold for car parts, you can be sure of a consistency across all parts made as well as being produced at an efficient rate.

Rosario Berry is a professional freelance writer, like to introduce Wolsan Co Ltd . The main benefit of having Press Mold built and used for the manufacture of car parts is that it is an extremely cost effective process.
Create New Designs and Styles and Rule over the Market with Your Quality

Create New Designs and Styles and Rule over the Market with Your Quality

There is a huge change in the car-making industry in the last few years. Cars and other vehicles are being created with the help of plastic parts. Many players of this industry are changing their mindset with the changing needs of the market around them.

Introduction of plastic in the industrial sector

No company wants to lose their customers, therefore, they have to say yes to the changing trends and adopt them. Have you heard of automotive parts moulding?

The numerous benefits and features of plastic have made it very popular. The main advantage of using plastic material is that there is a reduction in the weight of the vehicle as a whole. This not only saves the cost of international transportation transactions, but, also saves the energy and fuel.

At present, this industry is highly dependable upon plastic parts because they can make more profit and business out of it.

The advantages associated with this efficient system

* Flexibility: Any company can easily find this product in the market. With the increasing popularity and usage of this product, one can order for it any time. You can install the different processes and systems of this technology as the market is already overloaded with a variety of models. With the flexible feature of the plastic material, every company wants to use it and create auto parts in different designs and shapes. A number of industries are using this technique to excel in their field and meet the tough competition.

* Versatility: Are you in contact with any China Mould Manufacturer? Many car producing companies are using this technique to give a kick start to their business and operations. A wide variety of auto parts can be created with the help of plastic. Plastic is also responsible for most of the new designs and models of cars which are popular these days. The end users of the car feel satisfied when they get a new car in the market that too, at an affordable price.

* Hiring an expert team: Technology has made the use of plastic easier and converting it into varied designs and shapes. But, apart from all this, companies also have to make a lot of efforts. Every company using this technology has to hire highly skilled and experienced workforce of experts to work on this technique. Are you looking for some suitable China mould manufacturer? This contribution will help in raising the quality standards of the finished product. All this helps in converting the plastic material into the right shapes and designs, ensuringless waste and high quality.

This article is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His knowledge in plastic moulding industry has seen him contribute to and write several articles on topics like Plastic Mould, automotive parts moulding, Custom Mould, Mould China and China Mould Manufacturer etc.

Related China Auto Parts Mould Articles

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Some cool high-quality automotive molding images:

Nomination 49 – Materials – Controlled Crystallization Rate to Eliminate Paint
high-quality automotive molding
Image by spe.automotive
CONTROLLED CRYSTALLIZATION RATE TO ELIMINATE PAINT
•OEM Make & Model: Ford Motor Co. 2013MY Ford Escape CUV & Fusion® sedan, & Lincoln® MKZ® luxuary sedan
•Tier Supplier/Processor: TRW Automotive, Key Plastics LLC
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Asahi Kasei Plastics North America / Liberty Molds, Inc., J&J Tool & Mold Ltd.
•Material / Process: Leona® 90G60 B3374 PA 6/6 / 6I / injection molding
•Description: In order to support greater design freedom for any shape and length register vanes while meeting stiffness, durability, and perceived quality requirements, a partially aromatic injection-molded PA 6/6 / 6I resin was used to boost modulus without increasing wall thickness or adding glass reinforcement to achieve a high-quality, MIC Class A surface without paint. Owing to the "kinked" crystalline structure of the semi-aromatic PA resin, crystallization rate can be better controlled, so parts fully pack out before skins freeze off, leading to a resin-rich surface with a smoother surface and better appearance, eliminating the need to paint.

Extremely rigid construction
high-quality automotive molding
Image by felixdaacat
Superior passive safety is only one benefit of the extreme rigidity of a full carbon fiber monocoque – very high torsional rigidity is another. The monocoque is connected at the front and rear with equally rigid aluminum sub-frames, on which the suspension, engine and transmission are mounted.

The entire body-in-white of the future V12 model weighs only 229.5 kilograms (505 lbs) and boasts phenomenal torsional rigidity of 35,000 Newton meters per degree of twist. This guarantees a superb feeling of solidity, but, more importantly, extremely exact wheel control with excellent steering precision and sensitive feedback. For the dedicated driver, both are essential for truly enticing driving pleasure. The new Lamborghini flagship responds to the most minute steering input with the stunning precision of a perfectly balanced race car.

Depending on the form, function and requirements of the individual elements, the Lamborghini development team selected from three main CFRP manufacturing methods within its technology tool kit. They differ not only in their production processes, but also in the type of carbon fiber and its weave and, most importantly, in the chemical composition of the synthetic resin used.

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM): In this process the carbon fiber mats are preformed and impregnated with an exact amount of resin. Afterwards, they are cured under heat while the part is in the mould. Lamborghini has achieved a major breakthrough by further developing this method. Using the patented “RTM-Lambo” process, the final mould is no longer a heavy, complex metal piece, but is made instead from lightweight carbon-fiber parts, thus making the manufacturing process faster, more flexible and more efficient.
An additional benefit of the RTM-Lambo process is the low injection pressure that doesn’t require expensive equipment.

Prepreg – The carbon fiber mats used in this method, commonly known as prepreg, are pre-injected by the supplier with a thermosetting liquid resin and must be stored at a low temperature. The mats are then laminated in molds and cured under heat and pressure in an autoclave. Prepreg components are complex to make, but have an extremely high-quality surface finish (Class-A surface quality) and are therefore the preferred option for use in visible locations.

Braiding – These components are manufactured by using RTM technology. This carbon fiber weave technology is derived from the textile industry and used to make tubular components for special applications such as structural roof pillars and rocker panels. The woven components are made by diagonally interweaving the fiber in several layers.

The monocoque of the new V12 super sports car is constructed using these technologies applied in a series of special processes. One significant advancement Lamborghini realized is the ability to use already-assembled monocoque elements as the mould for the next step in the process. This makes for a considerable simplification of the manufacturing process compared with conventional methods.

Epoxy foam components are also used within the monocoque. They are placed in strategic points to increase the stiffness of the monocoque by working as spacers between the composite layers while also dampening noise and vibration. In addition, aluminum inserts are laminated into the front and rear surfaces to facilitate connection with the aluminum front and rear sub-frame elements.

Because of the complexity of the materials and process outlined above, Lamborghini decided to produce its new monocoque completely in-house, managing one strategic step in the production process.

Quality control is an absolutely crucial factor – every single monocoque is measured to exacting tolerances of only 0.1 millimeters, facilitating the extreme precision of the overall vehicle. Quality control starts with the purchase of the carbon fiber parts. Every delivery of carbon fiber is certified and the material is checked regularly for compliance with quality standards. Lamborghini worked together with its suppliers to develop a world-exclusive fiber and resin system for its RTM technology. Ultimately, these materials and processes constitute an important part of Lamborghini’s worldwide leading expertise in the field.

Carbon composite materials – A key technology for tomorrow’s high-performance automotive engineering

These materials made from CFRP combine the lowest possible weight with excellent material characteristics – they are very light, extremely rigid and exceptionally precise.

Furthermore, CFRP materials can also be formed into highly complex components with integrated functions. This reduces the number of individual parts when compared to traditional metal construction – thus enabling further weight reduction. Lighter cars have lower fuel consumption and fewer CO2 emissions. Most significantly, however, it improves the power-to-weight ratio – the deciding factor in the overall feel and performance of a sports car. A super sports car built using CFRP accelerates faster, has superior handling and better braking.

Professional Plastic Pvc Molding Technology Is the New Manufacturing Benchmark

Professional Plastic Pvc Molding Technology Is the New Manufacturing Benchmark

The plastic pipes are most demanding and most required necessity of our daily life. These PVC pipes are made by highly professional technicians that needs perfect design and raw material that can guarantee best quality and longevity of these products. These are made through optimal heat treatment technology that provides desired quality control. These are made under the supervision of engineers in a plastic factory under the proper guidelines designed by the industry experts and experienced professionals.

The engineering staff of the mould manufacturing constantly reviews and analyzes the complete manufacturing process as every aspect of the process is significant in achieving the desired results such as plastic pipe moulds. Do products like plastic pipe fitting mould require such an attention? Considering the sensitivity and their finer applications, it is recommended to have close monitoring of their manufacturing. They are generally designed by experienced mould designers and technicians those who put in their efforts in core processes such as the hot- runner and the cold- runner mould mechanisms, also by applying software applications like auto CAD, UG, PRO/E, solid works free that are known for their advantage in mould manufacturing.

What else happens in a plastic mould factory? In a factory these moulds are further made by quite high quality and advanced equipments that are used for the measuring, digital control cutting machines, electric spark and precise tools that are quite efficient to work for the preparation of these moulds. These efforts are made to ensure the calibration levels are precisely achieved.

Products that are manufactured as the pipes and their fittings:-

What are mainly manufactured plastic pipe fitting mould products? The manufactured products are like that of the plastic fitting moulds that are like the PVC pipe fitting moulds, PPR pipe fitting mould, PE pipe fitting mould, ABS pipe fitting moulds, PPSU pipe fitting moulds and there are even many other kinds of fitting moulds that are yet to develop.

Evaluating the durability standards of plastic pipes

The durability of these pipes and fittings depends completely on their manufacturing process where they are under strict surveillance by the manufacturing unit. Do we have any surveillance guidelines for a plastic mould factory? There are guidelines and recommendations by the international manufacturing councils that are applicable for molding factories too. Accordingly, these manufacturers handle these processes with collapsible core demolding system that consists of the core and the cavity that are the main parts of the mould structure. And they consist of fixed bars in the main core which is provided with a sliding rail outside and there is an active cavity for the installation of the stiffening ribs next to the fixed bar.

This article is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His knowledge in plastic moulding industry has seen him contribute to and write several articles on topics like Plastic Mould, Plastic Mould Factory, Plastic Pipe Fitting Mould, Mould China and plastic mould factory etc.
Cool China Plastic Parts For Car Manufacturer images

Cool China Plastic Parts For Car Manufacturer images

Check out these china plastic parts for car manufacturer images:

“Toys of Christmas Past”
china plastic parts for car manufacturer
Image by brizzle born and bred
Did you know that toys and games have been part of childhood for thousands of years? As early as 4000 B.C. (before Christ), games became a source of entertainment. At that time, people of Babylon played a game that preceded the present day game of chess.

4000 BC – A Babylonian game, which is the ancestor of modern draughts begins to be played

3000 BC – First Game resembling modern Backgammon is played in Sumeria.

2000 BC – Stone marbles first used in Egypt.

1000 BC – Kites appear in China. Stone Yo-Yos begin to be used in Greece

600 BC – An ancestor of chess called ‘Chaturanga’ is played in India.

1759 – Roller skates are invented by Joseph Merlin.

Victorian Era – Victorian children had fewer toys than you have today. Poor Children – Poor families made their own, such as cloth-peg dolls and paper windmills. Children would save their pocket money to buy marbles, a spinning top, skipping ropes, kites or cheap wooden toys.

Rich Children had rocking horses with real horse hair manes, and dolls houses full of beautifully-carved miniature furniture. Other popular toys for rich children included china or wax dolls for the girls and clockwork train sets for the boys. Girls played with dolls and tea sets whilst boys played with toy soldiers and marbles.

During Victorian times, people became fascinated by toys that made pictures move. One of the earliest and simplest of these was the thaumatrope. This is a disc with a picture on either side that is attached to two pieces of string or a stick. When you spin the disc quickly, the two pictures appear to combine into one.

1901 – Meccano goes on sale in the UK. Invented by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, it captures the spirit of the age with a challenging construction toy. One of the century’s leading toy makers and creator of Hornby train sets (1920, and see 1925) and Dinky Toys, Hornby died in 1936.

1902 – In the USA, the Teddy Bear is created by a Russian emigrants Morris MiTchtom who had seen a report of US President Teddy Roosevelt who declined to shoot a bear cub while out hunting. Clifford Berryman’s celebrated newspaper cartoon captured this moment and Mitchcom launched his range of "Teddy" bears in his Brooklyn shop. German toymaker, Margarete Steiff began making jointed toy animals including bears, and they were also able to cash in on the teddy bear craze in the USA, which spread worldwide.

1903 – Edwin Binney & Harold Smith patent the first ‘Crayola’ crayons.

1908 – Plasticine goes on sale.

1909 – Kewpie Doll-devised by Rosi O’Neill patented in 1935

1910 – Daisy Air Rifles go on sale.

1914 – Tinker Toys – interlocking construction toy.

1914 – Frank Hornby manufactures ‘0 Gauge’ Clockwork model trains

1925 – The first electric ‘Hornby’ train appears..Hornby produce the first electric train sets in the world.

1928 – Mickey Mouse is created by Walt Disney. The licensed toy is born. Dolls from 1930

1929 – Duncan Yo-Yo’s are first launched in Los Angeles when Frank Duncan saw waiters from the Philippines playing with their tradit-ional Yo-Yo. It can be traced back to Ancient Greece – in the Philippines it was a weapon (like a boomerang) for hunting and war until later it became a sporting item then later a plaything. In 1930 Frank Duncan brought over demonstrators to Europe to play the music halls – and the craze took off.

1930 – Charlotte Cla in the USA starts making Micky Mouse dolls based on the first Disney cartoon first screened in 1928.

1932 – US architect, Alfred Butt begins work on what will become the board game, Scrabble. He calls it Lexico. (See 1940) In Denmark, Ole Kirk Christiansen started his Lego toy company. Lego means ‘play well’ in Danish. (leg godt). Later he discovered Lego in Latin means ‘to put together’.

1934 – Corgi starts to manufacture toy cars and other models. In 1965 their model Aston Martin from the first James Bond film became the very first BATR Toy of the Year.

1935 – Monopoly arrives in the UK. Invented in the USA by Charles Darrow in 1933, patent filed 31st August 1935 while on sale in America. It was made under licence in the UK by Waddingtons. Darrow died in 1967.

1935 – Minibrix made by the Premo Rubber Co. using the studs and cavity device which paved the way for plastic interlocking bricks pioneered by Hilary Page in the 1940s.

1943 – Richard James, researching a suspension device develops the Slinky. It goes on sale in 1945.

1948 – Criss Cross Words invented by Alfred Butt (originally Lexico) fails to sell well and is sold to James Brunot who changes the name to Scrabble. Sales average just 8,000, but from 1953 – 55 it suddenly takes off – sales reach 4.5million sets.

1949 – Leeds-based Waddington’s produces mystery board-game, Cluedo. This year (1999) it celebrated its 50th birthday.

1949 – Ole Christiansen, invents Lego bricks. Just six bricks will fit together in 102,981,500 ways !

1950 – Disney’s latest release, Cinderella, spawns toy products. Meanwhile, Disney was telling the toy industry to gear up for their next full-length cartoon, Alice in Wonderland, out in 1951. Popular Toys: a wind-up Cinderella dancing doll (with Prince) and Palitoy’s Archie Andrew Ventro Doll…Minibrix, ‘the world’s finest toys’ from Dean & Son, Flying Saucer from Cascelloid, Electric Contact Quiz – ‘lights up your party – mysterious, unique, amusing’ – claims the makers, Spears. Other events: First Toy Fair in Harrogate. First meeting of the NATR – the toy retailers association.

1951 – best selling toys: Alice (from Alice in Wonderland film), Talking Eggs from Selcol with a crank-handle to make Humpty Dumpty squeak (6/9d) – about 32p…Muffin the Mule push-along toy by Kohnstam…Kiddicraft’s ‘Sensible’ range of cot and pram toys designed by Hilary Page.

1951 – A Muffin The Mule push-along toy is the best seller this year.

1952 – Mr Potato Head is launched. Jack O’dell creates the first Matchbox car.

1952 – Popular toys: Crazy Ball from Louis Marx…Negro dolls from Pedigree called Mary Lou and Dixie…Flop: Loopo, a game with a ball and small hand-held loop promoted as ‘the sensation of the year’…Lines Brothers, Britain’s largest toymaker celebrated its 70th birthday…

1953 – A ‘Little Princess’ doll designed by Norman Hartnell is launched to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

1953 – Pedigree launch dolls with ‘flesh-like’ vinyl plastic heads with ‘hair that grows out of their heads!’ using a "Angela, the doll with magic flesh" – it also has ‘sleeping’ eyes and lashes. Another pedigree doll out this Coronation year, is Little Princess dressed by Norman Hartnell…retailers read for the first time that out-of-town shopping centres are being tried out in the USA…Dean’s Rag Books are 50 years old…New Toys: Flower pot Men based on the TV series. Wembley – the football board game, Keywords (from Waddingtons) which has some similarities to Scrabble. Novelty Toys: Atom Bomber with A-bombs with automatic releases, and Slinky, the toy that slithers down steps – still a big seller to this day.

1954 – Sooty appears on TV and turns out to be an actual Chad Valley glove puppet…sales soar. The British Toy & Hobby Association hold their first Toy Fair in Brighton. New Toys: Dan Dare Rota Spinner for the beach…and at Christmas: Matchbox vehicles, Painting By Numbers. Scrabble arrives.

1955 – Scrabble sold in the UK by Spears begins to grow in popularity. Scoop from Waddingtons challenges.

1956 – New Game: Beat the Clock (Spears) based on the game on TV’s Sunday Night at the Palladium…Flops: New Footy Table Soccer as recommended by Stanley Matthews, and Newcrikit , recommended by Freddie Trueman…the Corgi Model Club formed…Triang T-T Gauge trains launched…Radio comedian (and chairman of Chad Valley) Kenneth Horne is seen on TV trying out the new Rise’n’Shine shaving kit and beauty shop – the first seen on TV…and the launch of the sputnik inspires the Bleep Bleep satellite toy.

1956 – A Mr B. Francis puts small electric motors in his scale models of cars and ‘Scalectrix’ is born.

1957 – Combex brings out the Sooty toothbrush flute…and following the Disney film’s release, a rash of Davy Crockett hats and toys.

1958 – New: The Hula – Hoop arrives! 20 million sold in the first year. Scalextric electric model racing first introduced…but whatever happened to Pictorama which can create 14 million different combinations of pictures? It’s the 50th birthday for Plasticine…and Frisbees (invented 1957 at the Frisbee Pie Factory) compete for attention.

1959 – Barbie is created by Ruth Handler, and is named after her daughter Barbara.

1959 – Stanley Matthews endorses Frido playballs. Selling well: Matchbox’s Scammel Breakdown truck, Board Games: Careers, and Wack-O (based on Jimmy Edward’s TV series)

1960 – For the first time, the Brighton Toy Fair allows imported toys to be shown. The craze that swept France, Loopyloop is predicted to sweep Britain…it doesn’t…Lego is seen at the Toy Fair for the first time…plastic kits dominate the market and toy market (at retail) is worth £85m through 11,000 outlets.

1961 – A mini-boom in costume dolls…Airfix launch their Betta Bilda sets at 10 shillings each (50p)…Fuzzyfelt bring out Noddy finger puppets, Scalextrics slot car racing sets, and trains are amongst this year’s top sellers.

1962 – Tipped as the craze of the year, Airtoy’s Spinning Satellite…it isn’t. Dinky launch Ford Fairlane, Corgi offer a model Silverstone with pit stops, Chad Valley launches the Give-a-show projector…Barbie and boy friend Ken impress US market…the Pogo stick is fun again…and Dinky’s First Engine is the first ever with flashing lights.

1963 – The board game, Diplomacy arrives…Matchbox offer cars with doors that open…and there is ‘the greatest money spinner ever from Frido’ – Disky Discs and goal posts to play ‘1-dimensional football’.

1964 – The latest craze: Booma Boomerang, Corgi is 30 years old and celebrates by introducing Corgi Classics…Diana Dors promotes the Trolls.

1965 – Dr Who and the Daleks on TV and toys available this Christmas…the James Bond Aston Martin Car is the big seller and will be the first ever Toy of the Year (to be announced as it will be in future in January of the following year at the NATR Dinner). Waddington’s launch Spyring board game, and the Noise Abatement Society complains about the V-rroom roar maker fitted to bicycles…the Gonks arrive to challenge Trolls…Denys Fisher launch the Spirograph. Craze that never was – Nik Nok – cup and ball game.

1965 – The James Bond Aston Martin from Corgi is the most popular toys this year. A version of the toy is still on sale today.

1966 – Action Man, the first ‘Doll For Boys’ is launched and is a massive success. Toy of the year this year will be Action Man – causing a sensation as the first doll for boys…for girls there is Tiny Tears. To rival Action man, Pedigree launch Tommy Gunn. Another craze that never was: Ippy Op – ball come skipping rope…but party game, Twister is a success.

1967 – Spiro-Graph is toy of the year. Rolf Harris Stylophone (Musical toy with a strangely annoying pitch. Apparently invented by accident the Stylophone enjoys cult popularity among musicians and has been used by bands as diverse as David Bowie and Blur.

1968 – Sindy is top doll and will win Toy of the Year. Ride-a-Roo ball is launched, as are Joe 90 products, Beatles’s Yellow Submarine, and the Go Car game which includes a breathalyser test as a hazard. Other new products: a multi-cube game called Instant Insanity and Glow-Globs, modelling compound that glows in the dark, and paintwheels.

1969 – Hot Wheels cars will win Toy of the Year. The Newton’s Cradle (Klikkies) sells well…but Tic Tac Tosser has a shorter life.

1970 – Sindy wins Toy of the Year for a second time…the NATR launches their Toy Token scheme…"The computer is becoming such an important part of our lives that a mini-computer for kids is in the office"…Super markets begin selling toys, and Matchbox makes 900 redundant.

1971 – Space Hoppers, inflatable orange bouncers with horns for handles. Klackers, a modernised version of conkers that made a very annoying ‘Klick Klack’ sound and lead to dozens of imitations. Katie Kopycat writing doll wins Toy of the Year. The giant Lines Brothers collapses, the arrival of Space Hopper, Craze of the year Clackers or Klik Klaks – first seen on Spanish beaches. Fun Bubbles sell over 7 million in first year.

1972 – Plasticraft modelling kits win Toy of the Year.

1973 – The first Game of the Year – Invicta’s Mastermind…a shortage of plastic causes problems…children’s pocket money averages 9p. New dolls: Disco Girl, Chelsea Girl, Daisy. Toy guns concern when gunmen using toy guns are shot dead by police outside India House.

1973 – Mastermind, a game that had nothing to do with the TV show and everything to do with cracking the code of your opponents coloured plastic pegs.

1974 – Magna Doodle. The magnetic drawing toy which was invented in Japan by pen engineers trying to create a clean mess free chalk.

1975 – Wombles. Womblemania hit the UK and Womble toys where everywhere.

1976 – Raw Power. A handle that you added to your bike and ‘revved’ to create the sound of an engine.

1977 – Slime, a bright green PVA based blob that came in little plastic pots and ruined many a households soft furnishings! Othello, the strategy game of Black & White counters. Holly Hobbie, dolls based on the popular character. Skateboards, 1977 saw the high point of the 1970’s skate craze and featured thin ‘surfboard’ style boards.

1978 – Star Wars, after the release of the movie the previous year the toys soon followed and became one of the most successful movie licenced properties of all time, the toys dominated toy shops until the middle 1980’s when their popularity waned. Simon, the electronic game where you followed a sequence of lights and sounds before you threw it across the room in sheer frustration!

1979 – Space Lego, the humble building brick went where no man had gone before. Stop Boris, a game where you stopped Boris, a creepy spider, with a light gun.

1980 – Rubiks Cube, invented by Hungarian designer Erno Rubik over 100 million of these tricky little puzzles were sold between 1980 and 1982.

1981 – Lego Train. Lego launches their first electric ‘train set’ which featured strangely enough blue rails!

1982 – BMX Bikes, everybody went BMX crazy, BMX is short for Bicycle Motocross. ZX Spectrum, the first ‘affordable’ home gaming computer arrived in UK households.

1983 – My Little Pony, based on an Animated TV series there was an entire world of small plastic horses and accessories to collect. My Little Pony went on to become one of the most successful girls toy concepts of all time. Boys did not miss out this year as they got He Man & The Masters Of The Universe which followed the same based on animation format and became one of the most successful boys toy concepts of all time.

1984 – Care Bears. Following the successful ‘toys from an animated series’ format from the previous year the Care Bears arrived from Care-a-Lot. Shortly before Christmas Cabbage Patch Kids, created by artist Xavier Roberts also arrived and created chaos in toy shops across the land as parent competed to buy one of the sought after dolls. The Board game Trivial Pursuit was the best selling board game in 1984 and dolls based on popular Pop Stars Michael Jackson and Boy George was also big hits.

1985 – Transformers, robots in disguise. These ‘action figures’, which transformed from vehicle to robot and back, again confounded parents and delighted children. Optimus Prime was THE toy to have in 1985 and lead to huge shortages of product.

1986 – In this World Cup year the playground graze was Panini Football stickers. If you managed to complete an album you were a playground hero.

1987 – Sylvanian Families, a range of cute and cuddly animals with play-sets and vehicles. Rubiks Magic, a follow up to the Rubiks Cube.

1988 – Ghostbusters, based on the popular movie and animated series, children across the land strapped on ‘proton packs’ and set out to capture ghosts. Slimer, one of the lead characters was also a firm favourite in toy shops, along with the vehicle Ecto-1.

1989 – Another hit movie, another toy shop success. The Tim Burton movie ‘Batman’ breathed new life into an old favourite and Batmania swept the UK.

1990 – Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo and Raphael, the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles arrived in toy shops and where an immediate hit. Originating in the US from a comic book the original word ‘Ninja’ in the title was replaced with ‘Hero’ in the UK for fears that it would violent connotations with parents.

1991 – Nintendo launched Game Boy in the UK.

1992 – Thunderbirds enjoyed a re-birth this year and dads of a certain age across the land re-lived there childhoods with their children. Shortages of the most popular toy, Tracey Island were so severe that Blue Peter ran an episode where the showed you how to make your own….

1993 – Power Rangers, the TV show arrived on our screens and children’s TV has not been the same since. Toys based on the show sold out immediately.

1994 – Magic Eye Pictures were all the rage and toys and puzzles featuring these pictures within pictures prompted even more people to ask ‘can you see it?’

1995 – POGS, small cardboard disks stormed into playgrounds and became a huge craze. Star Wars toys start production again after a short hiatus, 1970’s kids are now adults and collect the toys out of nostalgia but a new generation of kids also embraces the saga.

1996 – Toy Story, the animated film from Pixar was a huge hit in the cinema and toys from the movie were more than elusive. Parents went to desperate measures to secure a Buzz Lightyear doll. The rights to produce toys from the film went to a small independent Canadian toy company who simply could not cope with the demand. Why? Because all of the major toy manufacturers turned down the chance to make Toy Story merchandise, as they felt that the movie would never catch on. Corinthian figures, small figurines of football stars with oversized heads were the hot collectible and equally popular with adults and child collectors.

1997 – The year of T, Teletubbies, Tamagotchi and TY Beanie Babies are toy shop best sellers.

1998 – The humble Yo Yo returns as the craze of the year, after last being seen in the 1950’s and the 1970’s. The ProYo II is the Yo Yo of choice. Just before Christmas the interactive pet, Furby arrives in toy shops.

1999 – A board game based on the hit TV quiz show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’ is the best selling board game. Toys and games based on Pokemon the Nintendo game prove to be quite popular. The firm favourite are the trading cards hundreds of millions of which are sold, swapped and traded across the globe.

2000 – Robotic Pets and Aluminium Folding Scooters are this year crazes. They are also accompanied by another familiar face, The Thunderbirds return again and Tracey Island is another Christmas best seller.

2001 – Bob The Builder toys are big hits, Folding Scooters continue to be the must have accessory for both kids and style guru’s alike. Closely followed by Pogo Sticks which enjoyed a resurgence of interest this year.

2002 – Bratz Dolls, steal some of Barbie’s position as top fashion doll, a place she has held since she was born in 1959. Beyblades, customizable spinning tops and Micropets, miniature robotic pets are the favourite crazes

2003 – Beyblades continue to be the playground craze closely followed by Yucky Yo Balls, fluid filled stretchy balls on an elastic string. However Yucky Yo Balls are swiftly banned by the government over safety fears. This is the first time that the government has banned a toy in over 10 years.

2004 – Toy of the Year ‘Terrain Twister’ radio controlled vehicle.

2005 – Fisher-Price top-selling Dora’s Talking House"

2006 – The overall winner of the title Toy Of The Year 2006 was awarded to the Dr Who Cyberman Voice Changer Mask. This Voice Changer is a replica Cyberhead that will give you a robotic voice. It features speech, sound effects and lights! It has 3 play buttons, one that plays Cyberman phrases, one that changes your voice into that of the Cybermen and one with Cyber weapon sound effects.

2007 – The Toy of the Year Award was given to Blanket Time Iggle Piggle Dancing Soft Toy, from the massively popular ‘In The Night Garden’. Boys Toy of the year was chosen as the Ben 10 Omnitrix FX, which is like a wrist watch which transform Ben into different alien superheroes.

2008 – Toy of the Year Ben 10 Action figures 10" and 15" – Pre School Toy of the Year Kidizoom camera, Vtech – Collectable toy of the Year Go Go Crazy Bones – Construction toy of the year is Lego – Girls range toy of the year is Sylvanian families. – Boys range of the year is Ben 10, Bandai – Girls toy of the year is FurReal Biscuit my lovin’ pup.

2009 – Last year the toy of the year award as voted by the Toy Retailer Association went to the Ben 10 series. The year before it went to a set of toys from In the Night Garden. The theme seems to be a toy connected to a popular children’s television character and this will probably be the same pattern for the best selling toy of 2009/2010. Young children love toys that are familiar, toys that they identify with the television characters that they see. In 2008 the pre school toy of the year was again, In the Night Garden and toys such as Star Wars and toys featuring Thomas the Tank engine (pre school toys of the year in 2005) regularly win toy awards.

Toy Facts

Hasbro is the largest toy manufacturer in the world.

The 20th century saw the invention of dozens of much-loved toys as well. Still-popular board games like Tripoley, Sorry and Monopoly have been around since the 1930s, and Crayola Crayons are more than 100 years old! Twister, made by a division of Hasbro, sold more than 3 million games within a year of its release in 1966. It has sold more than 22 million since then.

Toys aren’t always a hit the year, or even the decade, they’re created. Unemployed architect Alfred Mosher Butts invented the game of Scrabble, which he first called "Lexiko" and later "Criss-Cross Words," in the 1930s. Entrepreneur James Brunot acquired the game in 1947, but it wasn’t until 1953, when the president of Macy’s — now owned by retail giant Federated Department Stores — discovered the game on vacation that things really took off. More than 100 million sets have since been sold worldwide.

The fortunes of other playthings are more cyclical. Troll dolls, which hit big during the 1960s, had all but disappeared by the 1980s until troll nostalgia ushered in a second boom in the early 1990s. As Generation Xers grow older, toys like Cabbage Patch Kids, now made by Mattel, and Koosh balls could stage a comeback as well.

And there’s serious money to be had. Mr. Potato Head, made in 1952 by Hasbro’s Playskool unit, was the first toy advertised on television, and it grossed more than million in its first year (that’s billion in 2005 dollars). Play-doh, which was originally designed for cleaning wallpaper, made inventor Joseph McVicker a millionaire by his 27th birthday. And Mattel sells an astounding 1.5 million Barbie dolls each week — that’s two dolls per second.

That Was the Year That Was – 1966
china plastic parts for car manufacturer
Image by brizzle born and bred
The swinging sixties were in full flow, but in some corners of the world the peace and love mantra of the flower-power generation could not be heard.

Even as hippies in London and San Francisco were weaving daisies into their hair, in China Mao Tse-Tung launched the Cultural Revolution, a 10-year political campaign aimed at rekindling revolutionary Communist fervour. Brandishing their copies of Mao’s Little Red Book of quotations, students of the Communist Party – the so-called Red Guards – pursued an ideological cleansing campaign in which they renounced and attacked anyone suspected of being an intellectual, or a member of the bourgeoisie. Thousands of Chinese citizens were executed, and millions more were yoked into manual labour in the decade that followed.

Meanwhile, the US government, under president Lyndon B Johnson, was escalating its military presence in Vietnam. By the year’s end, American troop levels had reached 389,000, with more than 5,000 combat deaths and over 30,000 wounded. The war was a brutal and dirty one, with many US casualties caused by sniper fire, booby traps and mines.

The Americans responded by sending B-52 bombers over North Vietnam, and by launching the infamous Search and Destroy policy on the ground.

"To know war," Johnson said in his State of the Union address before Congress, in January 1966, "is to know that there is still madness in this world".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=InRDF_0lfHk

There was bloodshed on the streets of London too, when Ronnie Kray, brother of Reggie, shot George Cornell dead in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel in March.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rhr8Vjzy8E

Two years after his proclamations about the "white heat of technology" Harold Wilson was prime minister of a Labour government that included technology minister Tony Benn. If Benn was pleased to witness the introduction of the first homegrown UK credit card – The Barclaycard – in 1966, he was in the minority. The card was met with "a tidal wave of indifference", according to a Barclays executive.

Perhaps the UK public simply had other things on their minds.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRuVVqn63co

This was, after all, the year in which Bobby Moore’s England beat the Germans 4-2 to lift the World Cup at Wembley.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3T6IY2fz_Mc

Musically, 1966 was a vintage year. Jim Reeves’ Distant Drums knocked the Small Faces’ All or Nothing off the top spot. Other number ones in the year included Frank Sinatra’s Strangers in the Night, Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys, the Walker Brothers’ The Sun Ain’t Gonna Shine Anymore and The Green, Green Grass of Home by Tom Jones.

The Beatles and the Rolling Stones also continued their dominance of the music scene, with Yellow Submarine, Eleanor Rigby, Paperback Writer and Paint it Black all topping the charts.

A Man for all Seasons won Best Picture at the 1966 Oscars, and its star Paul Scofield won Best Actor. Other films released this year included Georgy Girl, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Alfie and the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzQTF–oQ-U

On the small screen, viewers were subjected to the rants of Alf Garnet in Till Death us do Part; while US audiences were introduced to the delights of the Monkees and Star Trek. And the dynamic duo, Batman and Robin, thwarted lute-playing electronics genius the Minstrel as he tried to sabotage the computer systems at the Gotham City Stock Exchange.

"Batman heads off new corporate IT disaster" – now there’s a headline to conjure with.

The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8. The Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 to replace the ferry service crossing from Aust to Beachley. The new bridge provided a direct link for the M4 motorway into Wales.

The Severn Bridge has now carried more than 300,000,000 vehicles since it was opened in 1966. Between 1980 and 1990 traffic flows increased by 63% and there were severe congestion problems in the summer and at peak times each day. Further increases in traffic flows were expected in the years ahead. The problems encountered on the Severn Bridge were made worse by the occasional high winds, accidents and breakdowns. It is for these reasons that the Second Severn Crossing was constructed as without it congestion would become more serious and frequent on the M4, M5 and the local road network.

Bristol’s Mecca Centre opens

1966 – Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!

And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.

The New Entertainments Centre wasn’t just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.

London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNk8yuZ4lbI

Horace Batchelor K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M

1966 – KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.

Self-styled ‘football pools king’ Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.

Customers followed his unique ‘infra draw’ tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.

His ads included genial patter such as: ‘Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.’

Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.

During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.

It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. – By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named ‘Infra -Grange’ after his system.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU7MMdlATZQ

Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966

Pickles, the mongrel dog who found the World Cup in a London street after it had been stolen three months before the 1966 finals, became a bigger story than that year’s general election.

In March 1966, a few months before the start of the World Cup finals in England, a mongrel dog named Pickles found the missing Jules Rimet trophy in a London street.

One week before Pickles came to the rescue, the priceless trophy had been stolen from the Westminster’s Methodist Central Hall where it was being displayed, albeit in a glass cabinet.

And this despite the presence of no less than five security guards. On that fateful Sunday, however, the guard stationed next to the trophy had taken the day off. The thieves stole in through a back door and snatched away the World Cup.

For his winning role in the tale, Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966 and awarded a year’s free supply of dog food. His owner, a Thames lighterman named David Corbett, was a prime suspect in the case and police questioned him for hours before he was cleared.

With a dramatic goal in the final moments of what was a nail-biting match, England finally became soccer World Cup champions, securing a 4-2 win over West Germany at London’s Wembley Stadium. It was just one of the many highlights of 1966 that are etched on my memory from a year that had its fair share of controversy and tragedy as well as producing some outstanding music.

‘more popular than Jesus’

Controversy come in the wake of John Lennon’s quip in a newspaper interview that The Beatles were ‘more popular than Jesus now’. It caused a furor and led to thousands of the group’s records being burned on bonfires in protest in some parts of America. I recall seeing the news coverage on TV showing angry groups of people tossing piles of vinyl in to the flames. It was far cry from the outpourings of adoration and admiration that the Liverpool lads usually enjoyed. And for a while threatened to damage their reputation.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ6NL3iNNMs

The anti-Beatles outcry did however subside following an apology from Lennon and things eventually got back to normal on the Fab Four front. The catchy Paperback Writer topped the charts and their imaginative album Revolver reinstated their popularity.

Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales

One of the most tragic events that year In Britain was the Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales that claimed 144 lives, including 116 children. I was at work on a weekly newspaper on the October morning it happened. My colleagues and I had a radio on and listened to updates on and off throughout the day as rescuers dug through the tons of slurry that had roared down the hillside, desperately trying to find survivors in the mangled remains of the school building. I’ll always remember that it was a very dark period, particularly as so many young lives had been lost in what was later shown to have been an avoidable tragedy.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lzJLww3DvM

On the music front, 1966 threw up several gems, not least some groundbreaking offerings from The Beach Boys. It was, of course, the year that the magical singles Good Vibrations and God Only Knows and the grandiose album Pet Sounds set new standards in rock recording. Indeed, such was the excellence of the band at that time that it spurred The Beatles on to experiment and push their own musical boundaries still further.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOMyS78o5YI

Motown was in its glory too, and The Four Tops epitomized all that was great about the sounds made under the guidance of Berry Gordy in the bustling, vibrant city that was Detroit. Reach Out I’ll Be There.

Other memorable songs, were Dusty Springfield’s You Don’t Have To Say You Love Me, the Spencer Davis Group’s Somebody Help Me, the Rolling Stones Paint It Black, The Walker Brothers’ operatic The Sun Ain’t `Gonna Shine Anymore, and Chris Farlowe’s cover version of the Stones’ Out Of Time. All of them are classics of rock.

Tom Jones’ Green, Green Grass of Home was the biggest selling single. Way before The Voice!

www.youtube.com/watch?v=hSajFnkUxQY

George Harrison married Patti Boyd.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm8oTkuIJgs

Sergio Leone created the spaghetti western with The Good, The Bad and The Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. Due to the striking height difference between Clint Eastwood and Eli Wallach of over 9 inches, it was sometimes difficult to include them in the same frame.

Because Sergio Leone spoke barely any English and Eli Wallach spoke barely any Italian, the two communicated in French.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PgAKzmWmuk

In the 1960s Michael Caine was a cocky young British movie star with a Cockney accent. He played a caddish womanizer in Alfie (1966) "Not a lot of people know that"

Adam Sandler, Halle Berry, David Schwimmer, David Cameron, Cindy Crawford, Helena Bonham Carter were all born in 1966.

The first episode of Star Trek aired.

Walt Disney died.

The Beatles achieved their 10th number 1!

The Sound of Music won Best Picture at the Oscars.

Twiggy was named the face of ’66 by Daily Express.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncuD39xi-7M

1966 was also the year that the term Swinging London was coined by Time magazine, and as they say the rest is history

www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDIxIqc0Qkw

For a few years in the 1960s, London was the world capital of cool. When Time magazine dedicated its 15 April 1966 issue to London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade.

London’s remarkable metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-War capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style was largely down to two factors: youth and money. The baby boom of the 1950s meant that the urban population was younger than it had been since Roman times.

By the mid-60s, 40% of the population at large was under 25. With the abolition of National Service for men in 1960, these young people had more freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents’ generation. They rebelled against the limitations and restrictions of post-War society. In short, they wanted to shake things up… Added to this, Londoners had more disposable income than ever before – and were looking for ways to spend it. Nationally, weekly earnings in the ‘60s outstripped the cost of living by a staggering 183%: in London, where earnings were generally higher than the national average, the figure was probably even greater.

This heady combination of affluence and youth led to a flourishing of music, fashion, design and anything else that would banish the post-War gloom. Fashion boutiques sprang up willy-nilly.

Men flocked to Carnaby St, near Soho, for the latest ‘Mod’ fashions. While women were lured to the King’s Rd, where Mary Quant’s radical mini skirts flew off the rails of her iconic store, Bazaar.

Even the most shocking or downright barmy fashions were popularised by models who, for the first time, became superstars. Jean Shrimpton was considered the symbol of Swinging London, while Twiggy was named The Face of 1966. Mary Quant herself was the undisputed queen of the group known as The Chelsea Set, a hard-partying, socially eclectic mix of largely idle ‘toffs’ and talented working-class movers and shakers.

Music was also a huge part of London’s swing. While Liverpool had the Beatles, the London sound was a mix of bands who went on to worldwide success, including The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces and The Rolling Stones. Their music was the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Radio Swinging England. Creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, photographers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers.

But not everything in London’s garden was rosy. Immigration was a political hot potato: by 1961, there were over 100,000 West Indians in London, and not everyone welcomed them with open arms. The biggest problem of all was a huge shortage of housing to replace bombed buildings and unfit slums and cope with a booming urban population. The badly-conceived solution – huge estates of tower blocks – and the social problems they created, changed the face of London for ever. By the 1970s, with industry declining and unemployment rising,

Swinging London seemed a very dim and distant memory.

1966 in British music

14 January – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones (later of the Monkees).

19 January – Michael Tippett conducts the performance of his cantata The Vision of St Augustine in London.

6 February – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=D88vc_GWw-g

4 March – The Beatles’ John Lennon is quoted in The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US’s Bible Belt.

5 March – The UK’s Kenneth McKellar, singing "A Man Without Love", finishes 9th in the 11th Eurovision Song Contest, which is won by Udo Jürgens of Austria.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SH8BQmfhUgo

6 March – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool’s Cavern Club.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1SQ99AYudo

16 April – Disc Weekly is incormporated with Music Echo magazine.

1 May – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the New Musical Express’ poll winners’ show in London. The show is televised, but The Beatles’ and The Stones’ segments are omitted because of union conflicts.

13 May – The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar (in this case played by Brian Jones).

17 May – American singer Bob Dylan and the Hawks (later The Band) perform at the Free Trade Hall, Manchester. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an
electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.

2 July – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo. The performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan, a place – until then – designated to the practice of martial arts.

11 August – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I’m sorry I opened my mouth. I’m not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

29 August – The Beatles perform their last official concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

16 September – Eric Burdon records a solo album after leaving The Animals and appears on "Ready, Steady, Go", singing "Help Me Girl", a UK #14 solo hit. Also on the show are Otis Redding and Chris Farlowe.

9 November – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono when he attends a preview of her art exhibition at the Indica Gallery in London.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhJIiEeMeF0

9 December – The Who release their second album A Quick One with a nine-minute "mini-opera" A Quick One While He’s Away.

16 December – The Jimi Hendrix Experience release their first single in the UK, "Hey Joe".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3JsuWz4xWc

1966 in British television

3 January – Camberwick Green is the first BBC television programme to be shot in colour.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWUu-LTFJjE

3 March – The BBC announces plans to begin broadcasting television programmes in colour from next year.

5 April – The Money Programme debuts on BBC2. It continued to air until 2010.

23 May – Julie Goodyear makes her Coronation Street debut as Bet Lynch. She did not become a regular character until 1970.

6 June – BBC1 sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNSbMNl9K7Q

30 July – England beat West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley.

Summer – Patrick McGoohan quits the popular spy series Danger Man after filming only two episodes of the fourth season, in order to produce and star in The Prisoner, which begins filming in September.

2 October – The four-part serial Talking to a Stranger, acclaimed as one of the finest British television dramas of the 1960s, begins transmission in the Theatre 625 strand on BBC2.

29 October – Actor William Hartnell makes his last regular appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial The Tenth Planet. Actor Patrick Troughton briefly appears as the Second Doctor at the conclusion of the serial.

5 November – Actor Patrick Troughton appears in his first full Doctor Who serial The Power of the Daleks as the Second Doctor.

16 November – Cathy Come Home, possibly the best-known play ever to be broadcast on British television, is presented in BBC1’s The Wednesday Play anthology strand.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMR8KYDkRqk

BBC1

3 January – The Trumptonshire Trilogy: Camberwick Green
5 January – Softly, Softly (1966–1969)
10 March – The Frost Report (1966)
7 May – Quick Before They Catch Us (1966)
17 May – All Gas and Gaiters (1966–1971)
24 May – Beggar My Neighbour (1966–1968)
7 August – It’s a Knockout (BBC1 1966–1982
17 November – The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (1966–1967)

BBC2

5 April – The Money Programme (1966–2010)

ITV

22 March – How (1966–1981)

1966 Events

3 January – British Rail begins full electric passenger train services over the West Coast Main Line from Euston to Manchester and Liverpool with 100 mph (160 km/h) operation from London to Rugby. Services officially inaugurated 18 April.

Stop-motion children’s television series Camberwick Green first shown on BBC1.

4 January – More than 4,000 people attend a memorial service at Westminster Abbey for the broadcaster Richard Dimbleby, who died last month aged 52.

12 January – Three British MPs visiting Rhodesia (Christopher Rowland, Jeremy Bray and David Ennals) are assaulted by supporters of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith.

20 January – The Queen commutes the death sentence on a black prisoner in Rhodesia, two months after its abolition in Britain.

Radio Caroline South pirate radio ship MV Mi Amigo runs aground on the beach at Frinton.

21 January – The Smith regime in Rhodesia rejects the Royal Prerogative commuting death sentences on two Africans.

31 January – United Kingdom ceases all trade with Rhodesia.

9 February – A prototype Fast Reactor nuclear reactor opens at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland.

17 February – Britain protests to South Africa over its supplying of petrol to Rhodesia.

19 February – Naval minister Christopher Mayhew resigns.

28 February – Harold Wilson calls a general election for 31 March, in hope of increasing his single-seat majority.

1 March – Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan announces the decision to embrace decimalisation of the pound (which will be effected on 15 February 1971).

4 March – In an interview published in The Evening Standard, John Lennon of The Beatles comments, "We’re more popular than Jesus now".

Britain recognized the new regime in Ghana.

5 March – BOAC Flight 911 crashes in severe clear-air turbulence over Mount Fuji soon after taking off from Tokyo International Airport in Japan, killing all 124 on board.

9 March – Ronnie, one of the Kray twins, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel, east London, a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969.

11 March – Chi-Chi, the London Zoo’s giant panda, is flown to Moscow for a union with An-An of the Moscow Zoo.

20 March – Theft of football’s FIFA World Cup Trophy whilst on exhibition in London.

23 March – Pope Paul VI and Michael Ramsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, meet in Rome.

27 March – Pickles, a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy wrapped in newspaper in a south London garden.

30 March – Opinion polls show that the Labour government is on course to win a comfortable majority in the general election tomorrow.

31 March – The Labour Party under Harold Wilson win the general election with a majority of 96 seats. At the 1964 election they had a majority of five but subsequent by-election defeats had led to that being reduced to just one seat before this election. The Birmingham Edgbaston seat is retained for the Conservatives by Jill Knight in succession to Edith Pitt, the first time two women MPs have followed each other in the same constituency.

6 April – Hoverlloyd inaugurate the first Cross-Channel hovercraft service, from Ramsgate harbour to Calais using passenger-carrying SR.N6 craft.

7 April – The United Kingdom asks the UN Security Council authority to use force to stop oil tankers that violate the oil embargo against Rhodesia. Authority is given on 10 April.

11 April – The Marquess of Bath, in conjunction with Jimmy Chipperfield, opens Longleat Safari Park, with "the lions of Longleat", at his Longleat House, the first such drive-through park outside Africa.

15 April – Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London".

19 April – Ian Brady and Myra Hindley go on trial at Chester Crown Court, charged with three so-called Moors Murders.

30 April – Regular hovercraft service begins over the English Channel (discontinued in 2000 due to competition with the Channel Tunnel.)

Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the second time in three seasons.

3 May – Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio commence broadcasting on AM with a combined potential 100,000 watts from the same ship anchored off the south coast of England in international waters.

6 May – The Moors Murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley are sentenced to life imprisonment for three child murders committed between November 1963 and October 1965. Brady is guilty of all three murders and receives three concurrent terms of life imprisonment, while Hindley is found guilty of two murder charges and an accessory charge which receives two concurrent life sentences alongside a seven-year fixed term.

12 May – African members of the UN Security Council say that the British army should blockade Rhodesia.

14 May – Everton defeat Sheffield Wednesday 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, overturning a 2-0 Sheffield Wednesday lead during the final 16 minutes of the game.

16 May – A strike is called by the National Union of Seamen, ending on 16 July.

18 May – Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announces that the number of police forces in England and Wales will be cut to 68.

26 May – Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

6 June – BBC1 television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

23 June – The Beatles go on top of the British singles charts for the 10th time with Paperback Writer.

29 June – Barclays Bank introduces the Barclaycard, the first British credit card.

3 July – 31 arrests made after a protest against the Vietnam War outside the US embassy turns violent.

12 July – Zambia threatens to leave the Commonwealth because of British peace overtures to Rhodesia.

14 July – Gwynfor Evans becomes member of Parliament for Carmarthen, the first ever Plaid Cymru MP, after his victory at a by-election.

15 July – A ban on black workers at Euston railway station is overturned.

16 July – Prime Minister Harold Wilson flies to Moscow to try to start peace negotiations over the Vietnam War. The Soviet Government rejects his ideas.

20 July – Start of 6-month wage and price freeze.

26 July – Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.

30 July – England beats West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley. Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick and Martin Peters scores the other English goal in a game which attracts an all-time record UK television audience of more than 32,000,000.

1 August – Everton sign Blackpool’s World Cup winning midfield player Alan Ball, Jr. for a national record fee of £110,000.

2 August – Spanish government forbids overflights of British military aircraft.

4 August – The Kray Twins are questioned in connection with a murder in London.

5 August – The Beatles release the album Revolver.

10 August – George Brown succeeds Michael Stewart as Foreign Secretary.

12 August – Three policemen are shot dead in Shepherd’s Bush, West London, while sitting in their patrol car in Braybrook Street.

15 August – John Whitney is arrested and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

17 August – John Duddy is arrested in Glasgow and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

18 August – Tay Road Bridge opens.

24 August – Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is first staged, at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.

29 August – The Beatles play their very last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

3 September – Barely five months after the death of Barry Butler, a second Football League player this year dies in a car crash; 30-year-old John Nicholson, a Doncaster Rovers centre-half who previously played for Port Vale and Liverpool.

5 September – Selective Employment Tax imposed.

15 September – Britain’s first Polaris submarine, HMS Resolution, launched at Barrow-in-Furness.

17 September – Oberon-class submarine HMCS Okanagan launched at Chatham Dockyard, the last warship to be built there.

19 September – Scotland Yard arrests Ronald "Buster" Edwards, suspected of being involved in the Great Train Robbery (1963).

27 September – BMC makes 7,000 workers redundant.

30 September – The Bechuanaland Protectorate in Africa achieves independence from the U.K. as Botswana.

4 October – Basutoland becomes independent and takes the name Lesotho.

18 October – The Ford Cortina MK2 is launched.

20 October – In economic news, 437,229 people are reported to be unemployed in Britain – a rise of some 100,000 on last month’s figures.

21 October – Aberfan disaster in South Wales, 144 (including 116 children) killed by collapsing coal spoil tip.

22 October – British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow.

Spain demands that United Kingdom stop military flights to Gibraltar – Britain says "no" the next day.

25 October – Spain closes its Gibraltar border against vehicular traffic.

5 November – Thirty-eight African states demand that the United Kingdom use force against Rhodesian government.

9 November – The Rootes Group launches the Hillman Hunter, a four-door family saloon to compete with the Austin 1800, Ford Cortina and Vauxhall Victor.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6aTt-zFlo4

15 November – Harry Roberts is arrested near London and charged with the murder of three policemen in August.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXp36IUpDkU

16 November – The BBC television drama Cathy Come Home, filmed in a docudrama style, is broadcast on BBC1. Viewed by a quarter of the British population, it is considered influential on public attitudes to homelessness and the related social issues it deals with.

24 November – Unemployment sees another short rise, now standing at 531,585.

30 November – Barbados achieves independence.

1 December – Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith negotiate on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean.

12 December – Harry Roberts, John Whitney and John Duddy are sentenced to life imprisonment (each with a recommended minimum of thirty years) for the murder of three West London policemen in August.

20 December – Harold Wilson withdraws all his previous offers to Rhodesian government and announces that he agrees to independence only after the founding of black majority government.

22 December – Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith declares that he considers that Rhodesia is already a republic.

31 December – Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich Art Gallery in London.

Undated

Centre Point, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus in London, designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams, is completed. It remains empty for around a decade.

London School of Contemporary Dance founded.

Mathematician Michael Atiyah wins a Fields Medal.

The motorway network continues to grow as the existing M1, M4 (including the Severn Bridge on the border of England and Wales) and M6 motorways are expanded and new motorways emerge in the shape of the M32 linking the M4 with Bristol, and the M74 near Hamilton in Scotland.

Japanese manufacturer Nissan begins importing its range of Datsun branded cars to the United Kingdom.

The 1966 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1966. It was the fourth round of the 1966 World Championship. It was the 21st British Grand Prix and the second to be held at Brands Hatch. It was held over 80 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 341 kilometres.

The race, the first of the new three-litre engine regulation era where starters reached 20 cars,

was won for the third time by Australian driver Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19, his second win in succession after winning the French Grand Prix two weeks earlier. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme finished second in his Brabham BT20, a first 1–2 win for the Brabham team. The pair finished a lap ahead of third placed British driver Graham Hill in his BRM P261. Brabham’s win ended a streak of 4 consecutive wins by Jim Clark at the British Grand Prix. Brabham’s win put him ten points clear in the championship chase over Austrian Cooper racer Jochen Rindt with Hulme and Ferrari’s Lorenzo Bandini a point further back.

1965–66 in English football

7 October 1965: An experiment to broadcast a live game to another ground takes place. Cardiff City play Coventry City and the match is broadcast to a crowd of 10,000 at Coventry’s ground Highfield Road.

20 March 1966: The World Cup is stolen from an exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster, where it was on show in the run-up to this summer’s World Cup in England.

27 March 1966: The World Cup is recovered by Pickles, a mongrel dog, in South London.

16 April 1966: Liverpool seal the First Division title for the seventh time in their history with a 2–0 home win over Stoke City.

14 May 1966: Everton win the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday in the final at Wembley Stadium, despite going 2–0 down in the 57th minute.

11 July 1966: England, as the host nation, begin their World Cup campaign with a goalless draw against Uruguay at Wembley Stadium.

16 July 1966: England’s World Cup campaign continues with a 2–0 win over Mexico (goals coming from Bobby Charlton and Roger Hunt) that moves them closes to qualifying for the next
stage of the competition.

20 July 1966: England qualify for the next stage of the World Cup with a 2–0 win over France in their final group game. Roger Hunt scores both of England’s goals.

23 July 1966: England beat Argentina 1–0 in the World Cup quarter-final thanks to a goal by Geoff Hurst.

26 July 1966: England reach the World Cup final by beating Portugal 2–1 in the semi-final.

Bobby Charlton scores both of England’s goals.

30 July 1966: England win the World Cup with a 4–2 win over West Germany in extra time.

Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick, with Martin Peters scoring the other goal.

Honours

Competition Winners
First Division Liverpool
Second Division Manchester City
Third Division Hull City
Fourth Division Doncaster Rovers
FA Cup Everton
League Cup West Bromwich Albion
Charity Shield Manchester United and Liverpool (shared)
Home Championship England

Cool China Wide Panel Moulds Manufacturer images

Cool China Wide Panel Moulds Manufacturer images

Check out these china wide panel moulds manufacturer images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama
china wide panel moulds manufacturer
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning:

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal

Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Cool Plastic Auto Mould Production images

Cool Plastic Auto Mould Production images

Some cool plastic auto mould production images:

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

Nice Automobile Plastic Parts Suppliers China photos

Nice Automobile Plastic Parts Suppliers China photos

A few nice automobile plastic parts suppliers china images I found:

2008 Saturn Astra XR
automobile plastic parts suppliers china
Image by DVS1mn
*******************************************************************************
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

Or here for my Car Crazy Tumblr site.

Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech on General Motors

Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech to engineers and technicians at General Motors’ Milford Proving Ground.

(With thanks to Paul Eisenstein, editor of TheDetroitbureau.com, who provided this copy from his files.)

There was an auto executive, he was a very high-ranking GM man. You all know his name but I won’t mention it because it might embarrass him. He’s not at General Motors anymore.

I once asked this man what he would do if he found himself the chief executive of General Motors. He said, and I quote, "I would fire 1,000 executives." I’m not sure whether it made any difference to him which 1,000 executives, if he had anyone in particular in mind, or any thousand would do. I just tell you this to start things off.

Fasten your seatbelts. It’s going to get bumpy.

This talk will be divided into four sections. In the first, I will tell you something about myself. That’s long. In the second I will tell you the mistakes General Motors has been making. That’s longer. In the third part, I will tell you why General Motors makes these mistakes. That’s short. In the fourth part, much shorter I am afraid, I will suggest what you can do about it.

I was born in Detroit, in the city, in 1931. We lived on Willis between Second and Third, a few blocks south of Wayne University, which was a city university back then.

I went to the neighborhood schools, tough schools; it was a workers hillbilly neighborhood. As a boy, my father and I would walk miles from our apartment to the Fisher Theater to see the movies, and we walked to save the nickel busfare. We would always stop at the General Motors building to look at the cars, and the models. They used to have a contest. Young people would enter futuristic car designs, or make a copy of a Louis the 14th carriage. I loved that GM display, and dreamed of the day we would have a car.

We moved uptown and I went to Central High School, where by the way, a classmate was Sander Levin, now a member of the House of Representatives and brother to Carl, your senator. Then I came Wayne University, worked as a copy boy on the Detroit News, as a writer for Motor News, the AAA magazine and on the college daily. When I graduated after 3 1/2 years, in 1953, I enlisted in the U.S. Army. The Korean War was on but I served in Europe, in intelligence, in what we called the Army Security Agency.

When I came home in 1956, I joined the Wall Street Journal in Chicago, and in 1958 transferred to Detroit. I worked for the Journal in Detroit until 1967, when I became the New York Times bureau chief in Detroit and I held that position until 1973, when I transferred to New York for the Times, working the national news, then as a financial editor, then the national labor writer. In 1979, I joined Forbes magazine as its Washington bureau chief, and in the 1980s transferred to New York where I worked in various jobs, including assistant managing editor. I retired in 1996, but now write columns, six a month, one for Forbes Magazine monthly called Backseat Driver, plus a weekly column for Forbes.com, plus as monthly column for Ward’s Auto World, the Contrarian, and a monthly column for The Car Connection.com.

I haven’t just written about cars. I’ve covered politics, and am mentioned in "The Making of the President," 1968, by William White. Along the way I’ve done some foreign reporting, chasing Communists in Central America during the Carter/Reagan years. I’ve swung through Africa, Somalia, Nigeria, Angola, South Africa.

Recently I was named one of the top 100 financial journalists of the century by TJFR, a financial journalists group. I was ranked along with the likes of Ida Tarbell (the great muckraker who brought down the Standard Oil Trust), B.C. Forbes (founder of Forbes Magazine), Barney Kilgore, the creator of the modern Wall Street Journal. I tell you this so you will understand that I just may know what I am talking about.

As to the auto business, I was there when Ed Cole created the Corvair and there when John DeLorean created the GTO that Ronny and the Daytonas sang about. I was there when Karl Hahn taught us to "think small" about his beetle-shaped Volkswagen, and I was there when George Romney brought forth the compact Rambler and slew the dinosaurs in the driveway. I was there when the Edsel was born, and when Bob McNamara of Vietnam fame created the little Ford Falcon, the first car to really kick Chevy since the 1920s. And better yet, I was there when Lee Iacocca introduced his Mustang. I was there when Soji Hatori brought Toyota here. Soji, by the way, dumped his Japanese wife and married an American blonde in a blimp over Los Angeles. I was there when Studebaker owned rights to distribute Mercedes cars in this country, and I was there in Utah when Sherwood Egbert sent his lovely Avantis racing across the Salt Flats in a last doomed effort to save Studebaker.

I drove Ralph Nader into Detroit from the airport when he came with his new book, "Unsafe at Any Speed," and I knew Haagen Smit, who explained smog, and Bill Mitchell who knew how to make cars look long and low for General Motors. I was there when Lee (Iacocca) saved Chrysler with his K car and the minivan, and yes, I advised my readers to buy Chrysler stock when it was at 7 on its way down to 3. I was there when Tom Gale and Bob Lutz did cab forward (car design), and saved Chrysler again, and yes, I told my readers to buy Chrysler again at 10.

I do all this name dropping so you know that I know the difference between cars made of steel and cars made of clay, and more important, that I know the difference between men made of steel and men made of clay.

OK, end of Part 1. Now I am going to talk about General Motors.

You won’t like what I have to say.

You are badly led, with an organization that just doesn’t work.

I’m going to prove this to you, and my proof is an unparalleled number of errors, mistakes and failures.

This isn’t a new theme with me. In Wards Auto World of May 1998 I raised the question of GM strategy. I noted that you had a strategy board that didn’t know anything about auto strategy

I wrote that your strategy board had decided that luxury sport-utility vehicles had no place in the company’s own Cadillac division, thereby going about as far as anyone could to destroy Cadillac. This isn’t hindsight. Mercedes, BMW and Lexus all understood what was happening at the same time that GM rejected a Cadillac SUV, and they created SUVs, and so did Lincoln.

Quoting from that column on Saturn: "The board is taking seven years to get Saturn a second car, (it really took 10 years) thereby leaving its most warm and fuzzy division to wallow in a small-car depression. Instead of investing in success, this board starved it."

You know, they took away the Saturn’s product engineers. They are out to make Saturn into another Oldsmobile. Look at the LS launch. First, the idea of forcing Saturn to use a German platform designed for a metal body on a car with a plastic body is ludicrous. It cost more and took longer to do than to get a completely new platform for Saturn. Then the car design was completely undistinguished, and the actual launch was the worst I have ever seen in 40 years. The result is that sales are one-third expectations in the first year and the factory lost a shift. I figure that is a 0-million-a-year loss.

This is the board that has never updated and will soon kill the Camaro. That should take a good part of the excitement from Chevrolet. GM executives don’t seem to understand that the art in the auto business is building desirable vehicles, not killing models and closing plants.

Your strategy board completely missed the trend to car-based all-wheel drive vehicles, and is years behind the Lexus RX 300, the Honda CR-V and the like. Even Ford is in production of the Escape. How many more years must we wait for such a GM vehicle?

Now let’s go beyond that 2 1/2- year-old article:

Your management built an all-new pickup truck without four doors, when Dodge and Ford and Toyota all had four-door big pickups. To this day, no one at GM admits to have made that decision. It must have been someone they promoted. How could they build an all-new vehicle with three doors when they knew their competitors would have four?

How could they be a door short on an all-new vehicle?

Your company still doesn’t have a four-door small pickup. That is unbelievable. Ranger creams them. If Dodge Dakota had the capacity, it probably would outsell the Chevy S-10. I asked one of your highest-ranking executives why no four-door S-10. He explained that since a new S-10 was coming a few years down the road, they didn’t want to spend the money. Your people never, it seems, have heard the word "competition." Now about a month ago you did begin production of a Chevy S-10 Crew Cab. That is a type of four-door, but different from the usual design. In fact, this is a vehicle you build in Brazil, so you could have produced it here earlier. And it is priced ,000 above the two-door.

I’m sure they will sell some, but why are they years late in matching the competition? There is only one answer: incompetence.

Just to repeat what I am doing now, I am listing dumb decisions by your management that proves they know nothing about the auto business.

The EV-1. I am all for experimentation, but to spend 0 million to 0 million for a two-seater with a 40-mile range, are we out of our minds? That is the greatest car disaster ever, covered up by the press because it’s a green disaster. The EV-1 makes the Edsel look like a bases-loaded home run in the last of the ninth of the seventh game of the World Series.

Once the then-chief executive of your company, Jack Smith, said to me, and I quote, "You don’t think we can do anything right." I told him that I did think they did one thing right; they did a good job cutting manufacturing costs. And guess what? They’ve fired the man who did it, Don Hackworth.

And talking about strategy boards, did you know that the chief of design is not on the GM global strategy board, but your vice president of human resources is? That’s right: the global strategy board, the head of design isn’t on it but the head of the employment office is. Go figure.

Brand marketing. I don’t think much of brand marketing theories. To me they are just a way of avoiding the idea of building a better product. I suppose that if your idea of a new model change is putting six more raisins in a box of cereal, then brand marketing might be important. But even if I did believe, the idea that every single car model is a brand is incredibly dumb. No one in the industry believes this, except at GM. The idea that Chevy Impala is a separate brand, that Chevy Monte Carlo is a brand, that Cavalier is a brand, that Malibu is a brand is nutsy coo-koo. You can’t have 75 brands within GM. It won’t work, but it has been the GM strategy. And what’s the result of this strategy? Falling market share every year this management has been in power.

Look at the numbers. Your management has lost an average 3/4 of a percent point of market share very year, from 35% to down toward 28% this year. My belief is that you are headed to 25% of the market. I would also predict that before long someone high will "take the fall" for this loss, which I put directly on the top management and its theories.

Supplier relations: Your company has the poorest supplier relations in the industry, and a reputation of mistreating suppliers, of trying to beat down their prices unfairly. If someone comes up with a great innovation, GM is the last company it will try to sell it to for these reasons. I have had the CEO of major suppliers say this. Yet this is how your management does business.

Another disaster was the strike of 1998, which cost GM, I believe, better than billion in profit. General Motors provoked that strike. Look, I covered the UAW in Detroit. I knew Walter Reuther and Leonard Woodcock and Doug Fraser. I knew the company negotiators like Malcolm Denise of Ford and Earl Bramlett of GM. I was the labor writer of the New York Times. GM deliberately proved the strike. I’m not saying that was wrong. It is OK to provoke a strike, and GM had some justification But when GM was 24 hours from winning, the company surrendered. Apparently GM decided that winning would hurt the UAW’s feelings. Why provoke a strike unless you intend to win? Why surrender when victory is in your grasp. At a cost of billion. The performance of your management was unbelievable here.

How about the dealer ordering system, which was installed by present management? The company has been in business since 1907, and it sets up a system that keeps dealers from getting the cars they need. This cost GM one-half of a percent of market share, which is 85,000 sales, or billion in sales. How could your management install an ordering system that didn’t work? How?

Fit and finish. Look, the quality of your fit and finish is the worst in the industry, excluding Koreans. Your executives know it, too, but what are they doing about it? I’ll know they are doing something when an executive vice president is given the public responsibility of improving fit and finish, and his bonus is on the line.

The dealers. You want to know something? The only reason you are still selling 28% of the market is your dealers. The biggest distribution system in the business. And your management hates them. They actually announced a plan to buy 15% of the GM dealers, to go into competition with their own dealers, and then when the dealers blew up, your chief executive said he didn’t know anything about it. Well, GM is disorganized but I don’t believe that Roy Roberts invented and publicly announced a billion-dollar acquisition plan all by himself.

Sorry.

Design: What do you want me to say? GM invented car design: Harley Earl, Bill Mitchell. I knew some of these people. Now, you have the Aztek.

For God’s sake, why couldn’t they hire somebody. Ford did, Chrysler did, Mercedes and BMW did, they all do (not the Japanese. Their designers really are Japanese). Now GM did hire someone from the outside, a French woman from Renault. Now I like French women, and I wish her well, I am sure she is talented. But please explain to me who buys French Renaults besides the French … and a few Spaniards. Who? Nobody. Why can’t GM find an American who understands the American culture, and who can create a PT Cruiser, or a Thunderbird? Why do they hire a foreigner?

I ask you, if you didn’t work for GM, would you drive a GM car?

Let’s get specific: How about that pickup truck design. You know, that’s where the money is, the T800 platform. The pickup is the heart of it. You used to be No. 1 in pickups, now you are behind Ford F-150 and Dodge Ram has scored big off Chevy. So you designed a new truck, darn good truck, too, except for the rattles. But when it came to design, they made it look like the old one. You know why? Because instead of relying on your designers to design a modern-looking truck, you took the designs to focus groups, and they picked the old look. So your new truck looks dated when it comes out, and in a couple of years will really look dated. And as noted earlier, they forgot to put four doors on it at first. These are the reasons I believe your Silverado sales are less than expected, why you are rebating it.

Then we have the Pontiac Aztek. I’m not going to dump on it, and I hope it catches on. I hear it’s a dud, but you never can tell. But I have never, never seen such dislike of a vehicle design, never.

Look, even the future stuff, the show cars, they just don’t look right. I know it and you know it. Why hasn’t this management done something about it?

Oldsmobile: Look, Olds is dead. Your management is saying that they did everything possible and it’s up to the dealers and the customers to save Olds. Those are code words. Figure five years and gone. They did give Olds new product, but it was product without any design distinction, without any engineering firsts, a new engine that wasn’t better than the competition, and mediocre quality and inexperienced leadership. Hell, they fired the experienced leadership. Remember the Rock, John Rock? The head of Olds today used to sell Alpo dog food. You figure it out. Five years and dead. Why five years? It’s a legal strategy. Starve it to death so sales fall, so we can’t be sued.

Cadillac. Let’s not go over 15 years of disaster. Let’s just say that I’ve seen the new Catera, to be built in a new plant in Lansing. But where’s the new motor? The old German motor was one of the Catera problems, and they are putting that old engine in the new car, maybe with a horsepower boost. That’s not the way to save Cadillac. The car needs a great engine and it doesn’t have one. And I understand that rushing out the Escalade was to save the dealers, but in the long run it reinforced the idea that Caddy is a Chevy with thicker leather. BMW builds an all new X-5. Mercedes builds an all- new ML 320. Caddy gets a redone Tahoe. If they could create new vehicles, and even new factories, why couldn’t GM? Some management.

True story: One of the most important businesswomen in America decided to buy an SUV. Her name is known to all of your directors. She’s big. She asked a friend of mine if he could get her some to test drive. He said he could and would get her a Cadillac Escalade.

She said to him, and this is the quote: "Don’t insult me."

The Escalade isn’t a bad vehicle. It’s quite OK. But the prestige of Cadillac is so low that a well-known person says that being offered a Cadillac to drive is an insult.

Which brings us to Powertrain. Would someone tell me what Powertrain has been doing for 20 years?

You know, a while back GM was the greatest engine maker in the world, the greatest. Then some jackass stuck Chevy engines in Oldsmobiles. Instead of saying, we’re sorry, it will never happen again and firing the idiot, GM solved the problem by eliminating divisional engines and setting up one big engine operation, Powertrain.

In my lifetime, in my lifetime, GM Powertrain has never turned out a world-class four-cylinder engine in North America. Never.

The best Six, the 3800, is as old as Methuselah, so they are trying to sell an ancient engine to a generation that doesn’t want a two-year-old computer. There’s a little four-cylinder engine in the ,000 Toyota Echo that has more technology than any GM engine today. Your first engine with variable valve breathing, comes out next year. Let’s hope they can build it. The Japanese and Europeans have been building them for years; that’s why they are good now. We’ll see what happens to your new variable valve engines next year.

All you hear is Northstar Northstar Northstar. BMW, Mercedes, Toyota, Honda wouldn’t have Northstar in their cars. No variable valve breathing. What GM needs is a new small block V8. Where is it? Don’t ask me.

In fact, you are buying a six-cylinder engine from Honda for Saturn. Saturn was created to prove that Americans could build as good a product as the Japanese. Now they are buying Honda engines for Saturn, which proves that this management not only can’t build a better engine, it’s given up trying. In heaven you can hear Ed Cole and Boss Kett sobbing. GM has to buy engines from a competitor

They don’t even have a five-speed automatic for their own cars which are front-wheel drive. They are getting one, when the competition is getting six-speed automatics. GM will get its five when the competition is getting a six-speed. Actually, GM did make five-speed automatics for rear-wheel drive cars and sold them to your competitors. Believe it or not, you helped your competitors whip you.

This management is so inept that its own wholly-owned subsidiary, German Opel, revolted. Did you know that? The board of directors of German Opel, appointed by GM, revolted. They blamed Detroit for stripping Opel of resources for GM’s globalization, thereby wrecking Opel quality. The American head of Opel, Dave Herman, agreed with the Germans, so GM in Detroit, in effect, fired him, ordered him transferred to Moscow. The German board said no, you can’t fire Dave Herman unless we say so. Unprecedented. It took a half-year to straighten this out, and they are still mad.

And while we’re on this, how about this "alliance" strategy? GM spent billions buying 20% of Suzuki, half of Isuzu, 20% of Fiat, 20% of Subaru. Remember, I’m supposed to be a good financial reporter, voted one of the century’s best.

Well, this alliance strategy makes no sense at all to me. Did you know GM has owned part of Isuzu since 1971, that’s 29 years? What have they gotten from it? They’ve been in Suzuki since 1981. 19 years. What have they gotten from it? In profits? Nothing. They get to sell the Geo Tracker. They don’t even get the good Tracker. You get the old one. Billions down the ratholes and they call it a strategy. Well, it is, a losing strategy.

Here’s an aside:

This year’s General Motors annual report said, "It’s no secret that, in recent times, General Motors has been thought of by some as the ‘product laggard’ in the industry. We don’t think that description has ever been fair. However, that image is going to change."

Well, I’m the one they are talking about. And they say it isn’t true but it’s going to change. Why, with the same people leading the team? They are doing the best they can. It just isn’t good enough.

The other day I saw the new SUV the GMC Envoy. That’s the new Jimmy, like the new Blazer will be called the Trailblazer. That Envoy looked good, darn good. But the version I saw had only two rows of seats, no third-row option. GM will build an extended-wheelbase version for a third seat. That extended-seat version will be the same length of the GMC Yukon that has a third seat. You’ve got to understand, the extended-wheelbase Envoy and the Yukon, both the same length, will sit three feet apart in the showroom.

Why do that? Why not build one Envoy, an inch or two longer if need be, with an optional third seat. If it’s not comfortable, the salesman sells the Yukon. You know, that is what Ford is doing. The new Explorer will have a third-seat option, with no 0 million spent for an extended wheelbase version.

The same thing will go for Chevy extended-wheelbase Trailblazer and the Tahoe. Ain’t there anyone in the RenCen who knows how to play this game?

How about the advertising? Remember the Cadillac Ducks? All that money spent to introduce the Catera with stupid and silly ads. How about the new Cadillac advertising theme? "The power of &." I don’t know anyone that knows what it means. And they never fire an ad agency.

I will say the OnStar ads with Batman are terrific. Super. I don’t understand how they got them. I figure they’ll fire the guy who did them.

There’s so much. It goes on and on. They talk about a major effort to build a five-day car; you can have it built-to-order and delivered in five days. What, you need a five-day Cavalier? The major reasons for not having what the customer wants are corporate. That is, they want V8s and you don’t have enough V8 capacity, so you give incentive money to sell sixes. They want silver paint jobs, but the company bought white paint and wants to use it up. Sure, they should make it faster to get a car built-to-order, but that’s no big deal.

E-Business, China, your management puts its hopes in all these fantasies. Meanwhile, Toyota is going to outsell your cars in California. Last year, you registered 182,000 cars in California. Toyota registered 161,000. You were just 21,000 ahead. When will they pass you? And they are catching up in trucks, too. Your management doesn’t know that beating Toyota in California is more important than dreaming about China.

And there’s no modern GM convertible, either. Chrysler sells 60,000 Sebrings. Ford sells 40,000 Mustangs. Good business. But it’s more than that. The convertible is the spirit of a company. That’s why Toyota builds them. You have the ancient and soon-to-die Camaro and the two-seat ‘Vette.

Do we have to go on?

Everybody makes mistakes. But your management makes so many of them. The proof of their incompetence is in the number of mistakes. There is absolutely no reason to think that this will change. The same people who made the mistakes are still in charge, and they haven’t admitted it.

End of Part 2.

Part 3, a much shorter segment. Why these things happen.

Listen carefully: You have a management that doesn’t know much about the American car business. It isn’t that they are bad people or dumb people. I assume they are smart. They just don’t know much about the American car business. Look at their resumes. The chairman and former CEO was the former treasurer who made his bones negotiating the joint-venture deal for the Fremont plant with Toyota. As a reward he was made boss of GM Canada and then GM Europe, and he did a good job, a good job. But he had no American car experience. And in Europe, he had top people around him; they knew the business. That wasn’t true here.

Your new CEO likewise was a financial official, who did a good job in Brazil and a good job in Europe, but had little American car experience, until he was made president of North American operations. His on-the-job training was running North American Auto Operations. He lost market share very year and was promoted to CEO. Most of the disasters that I’ve described, and the fall in market share, came on his watch. Yes, you did make profit here. It would be amazing if you couldn’t make a profit in a 17-million-car year. What happens when it goes to 13.5 million and you have 25% share?

Look, I don’t have anything against financial people. One of the best officers I knew, Bill Hoglund, the man who turned around Pontiac, you know, "We Build Excitement," was a financial man. But he had cars in his heart, and that’s what counts, what’s in your heart, not what you studied in graduate school.

Your president today of North American operations was selling eyewash five years ago. Actually I like Ron Zarrella. He is terrifically smart, and a quick study. But he doesn’t have any experience, the knowledge you get from seeing how things really work. If he had great backup, that might be OK. But the backup is awful. They don’t know the auto business, either. Ron is like a quarterback just out of college, playing for the NFL in his first year, and with no protection. He’s going to get sacked an awful lot.

It’s one thing not to know the business. But worse, your management doesn’t like people who do know something about the American car business. Look at the top-flight people who have gone. J.T. Battenberg, one of the best, gone from GM. Don Hackworth, who once headed Buick and then manufacturing, going. Lou Hughes, gone. Mike Losh, the CFO who once headed Pontiac and Olds, gone. John Rock, who saved GMC, bounced. Ed Mertz of Buick, gone. My impression has been that they actually consider knowledge of the business as some kind of disadvantage.

But worse is the management system they have set up. You don’t have a working system.

Gentlemen, and ladies, again, I am supposed to know something about managements.

Let me tell you a story. Years ago, in the 1950s, Pontiac was going down, and GM sent over Bunkie Knudsen to take over. He took over 60 days before Job 1. He went down to the styling shop to see what he had coming in 60 days.

Pontiac was an old man’s car then. Its styling symbols were two wide chrome stripes running down the hood, we called them suspenders, and the Pontiac Indian head on the hood.

It was only 60 days before Job 1, and Bunkie couldn’t do much, so he said take off the suspenders and the Indian head.

Well, one day I asked the vice president of Buick, you remember, Ed Mertz, if he could walk in 60 days before Job 1 and strip chrome off his car. That was in the day of the 4-Phase System of new-car development. You remember the 4- Phase system; it started at Phase Zero and ended at Phase 3. I want you to know I never thought much of a company with a 4-Phase System that starts at Zero and goes to 3. Anyway, I told Mertz the Knudsen story and asked if he could go into design 60 days before Job 1 and strip off chrome.

He said, "Sixty days before Job 1? Hell, that’s Phase 5."

Gentlemen, I have not found one man in GM who could by himself order a piece of chrome stripped off a car. Your management has created a system without power or responsibility, or with power and responsibility so diffused that it takes forever to get anything at all done. Even the VLEs have to hold meetings to strip off a piece of chrome.

You could say your CEO has power, but he says he doesn’t know anything about design or engineering or marketing so why would he do anything.

Look, the division chiefs are nothing anymore. They aren’t vice presidents; they have no power over quality even. A division like Cadillac has about 50 people on the payroll. They probably will be eliminated in time and the division chief, too.

The brand-marketing boss is supposed to have power, but as far as I can he or she has power over the advertising. The VLE is supposed to be the boss, but they aren’t vice presidents, and they report to manufacturing and manufacturing never wants to change anything.

As far as I could tell, the most powerful car guy was Don Hackworth, but he’s gotten his head chopped off.

And there seems to be no penalty for failure. Has anyone been fired for that Saturn disaster? I figure the worst launch on top of the worst platform decision, which was, by the way, forced not by Saturn people but by top management of GM. Have they shaken up design for those boring products? Have they changed the brand management for the market share loss? Did they ever fire anybody for lousy advertising? There is no penalty for failure.

How can anyone who knows something about the American car business, about cars, get to the top, or even the No. 2 position, of GM. I don’t see the pathway up. Engineers don’t count for anything anymore in this company as far as I can tell. You know, even Fred Donner, the ultimate financial man at GM, who set up the last management system about 40 years ago, felt that while there should be a financial man on top, the No. 2 should know something about cars. Not today.

I recall John Rock, then a vice president of Oldsmobile, said to me, "This system won’t work, but it will take them 10 years to find out."

Your board of directors. I believe there is only one person on the entire board who likes cars, and it’s not Jack Smith, the chairman, either

The stock price: It is as high as it is because of Hughes, bought by Roger Smith. Without Hughes I figure GM could be selling at 35. And you can thank Carl Icahn, the old raider for pushing it up 12 points by announcing a raid. Now he’s gone. Where will it go?

Enough, end of Part 3

Part 4. What can you do about it?

Well I hope someone made a tape of this speech. If not, I can give you a copy of my text. Each one of you should drop a note to each member of the board.

You could do it in a round robin, if you wanted. That is, everyone signs the same note, in a circle. That’s a round robin. No one stands out.

Tell them you don’t know if I’m right or wrong but you’re worried about GM.

Urge them to set up a committee of outsiders, men who know the business, to study GM and report back with a plan of action in 60 days. Make suggestions about who should be on this committee.

How about Bill Hoglund, ex-GM executive vice president. How about Roger Penske, how about Lee Iacocca, or Bill Mitchell or Bob Eaton or Bob Lutz or J.T. Battenberg or Maryanne Keller.

The board must order that all records and minutes be made available immediately to the committee. They must order that all officers make cooperation with the committee their first, their first priority. That anyone obstructing, delaying or acting in any way uncooperatively shall be suspended by the committee awaiting board action. Who could they hire if they went that way? Believe me, there are people out there who could lead General Motors back to glory. And throw another shrimp on the barbie. That’s a hint about one of them.

The committee should have the right to interview people outside of GM for positions within the company. The committee members must be paid terribly well for their work, too. That’s because if they do it for free no one will respect the report. They only respect what they overpay for.

You can call this the Committee of Public Safety.

What else can you do? Go to church and pray. Your company is going down to 25% of the market. That’s not terrible. You can make money at 25%, Ford does. But I don’t see leaders coming up the pipeline. All I see is more stretch goals.

When you write to your board members, tell them that you don’t understand how a company that depends on products has no upward mobility for product people. None of the top executives are product people.

Write slogans on walls, too. Victory or Death, Beat Ford, V, Sic Semper Tyrannis.

That’s it.

My last words:

Never give up,

Never surrender,

And don’t let them take you alive.

Read more: Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech | freep.com | Detroit Free Press www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100812/BUSINES…